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October, 2009

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Central Public Works Department (CPWD) Indian Building Congress (IBC) Consulting Engineers Association of India (CEAI) Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS)

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety First Edition : November 2007 Second Print : January 2008 Third Print : April 2008 Second Edition : May 2009 Reprint : October 2009 Price : Rs. 150.00

© No copying without Confederation of Constrution Products and Services (CCPS) permission

All rights reserved. Neither this document nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from CCPS. Glass and Glazing Secretariat Deepak Gahlowt, P.K.Singh, Shashi Kant, Birendra Prasad, Sumit Bhatia, Ankita Bhattacharya, Anuradha Jha, Milton Sarkar, Sarita Balodhi Layout and Cover Design SNGRAPHIX, 9891299959 Cover Photo Deepak Gahlowt

Confederation of Construction Products & Services 3rd floor, Raj Tower - II, Alaknanda Shopping Complex, New Delhi - 110019 Tel: +91-11-26023615, 42143615, 40546331 TeleFax: +91-11-26021709 email: [email protected] Website: www.ccpsindia.com

Foreword

CONTENTS

Preface to the second edition Preface

5 7 9

1.0 Scope

10

3.0 Application / Installation

11

2.0 Safety Glass

10

4.0 Identification of Safety Glass

12

Summary

16

5.0 Critical Locations

Annexure 1 : Sketches of examples for cases 1 to 5, table A

Annexure 2 : Correlation between Maximum Glass Area and Glass Thickness (Impact Load) Annexure 3 : Safety Glass Test Requirements Annexure 4 : Definitions

Annexure 5 : References

List of Steering Committee Members / Special Invitees List of Expert Committee Members

12 18 21 23

24 29 30

32

FOREWORD “Guidelines on use of glass in buildings-Human safety” has been brought out by CCPS through consensus approach involving all stake holders, representatives from CPWD, various PWDs and other Govt. departments etc. The use of glass in buildings has increased manifolds. The worldwide increase in use of glass has become a matter of concern from human safety point of view. Recognizing the gravity of the problem and uncertainty faced by the Engineers, Architects and users, the guidelines for selection of appropriate safety glass suitable for a particular location has been brought out.

CPWD has already issued OM dated 18/02/2008 to all the officers in the department to promote awareness about Human safety while finalizing specifications for glazing. Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has also issued GO no.205 dated 27/02/2009 to ensure safe use of glass in buildings by following these guidelines.

The guidelines were reviewed by the Expert Committee constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri P.B. Vijay, former DG(W), CPWD which has representations from CPWD, CCPS, IBC and CEAI, and has suggested few modifications. Accordingly, guidelines have been reprinted in the present form and available for implementation. The purpose of guidelines is not to sell more safety glass but to exhibit the wide choice that exists and allow the use of annealed glass with precautions in order to reduce the risk of accidents.

I appreciate the efforts of the CCPS for bringing out these guidelines. I am sure these guidelines shall be useful to the architects, engineers, builders not only of Govt. Departments but also from the private sector. The adoption of these guidelines will definitely create confidence amongst engineers and architects for ensuring the safe use of glass while proposing glass in buildings.

P.B. Vijay B.E. (Hons), M. Tech. (Struct.) FIE, MICA Former Director General, Central PWD

A-39/B DDA Flats Munirka New Delhi - 110 067

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION Guidelines on Use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety, brought out by Confederation of Construction Products and Services in November 2007 have drawn the attention of all concerned including Government Departments, Bureau of Indian Standards and professionals in the Country. To create awareness and implement these Guidelines through inclusion in Building Byelaws and Specifications, CCPS approached various Ministries, Central and State Government Departments, Development Authorities, Municipalities, Professional Societies, Builders, Individuals etc.

Since the main concern was of human safety, an Expert Committee was constituted in May 2008 to review and analyse the CCPS Guidelines, having representations from Indian Building Congress (IBC), Consulting Engineers Association of India (CEAI), Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS) and other stake holders. Expert Committee met over five meetings and suggested amendments which have been included in this modified edition.

The Guidelines are practical, relevant and easy to use. I am sure that these Guidelines would prove very useful for the construction industry. I also hope keeping in view the spectacular increase in use of glass in buildings, Local Bodies and Government Departments will come forward to include provisions from these Guidelines in their Building Bylaws and Specifications to ensure human safety.

I am grateful to Sh. K.K. Kapila, President, IBC and CEAI for his initiative in getting the document examined through an Expert Committee. I am thankful to all the Committee Members for their valuable inputs in improving the basic document prepared by the CCPS. I specially thank Sh. D.S. Sachdev, Director General, Central PWD for providing expert opinion and endorsing the document for adoption by the professionals. The support of Indian Glass Manufacturers’ Association (IGMA) for this project is appreciable.

New Delhi May, 2009

(P.B. Vijay) Chairman, Expert Committee

PREFACE

The Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS) with the support of I Glass is happy to release "Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety".

In the modern lifestyle, increased Glass use in buildings offers many advantages. Those who spend more time indoors have intuitively understood benefits of improved daylight and vision on human psychology and health, and recent research findings underscore these indisputably. However this increased use of glass in Indian buildings is not without risks. Wrong selection of glass type is widespread and does result in increased heat gain/loss in buildings and the higher risk of injuries to humans. These are side affects that the building industry is only recently beginning to recognize in India.

The Energy Conservation Building Code 2007, prepared by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency that sets minimum efficiency standards for external wall, roof, glass structure, lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning of the commercial buildings, is a good beginning in the area on energy conservation. CCPS was also actively involved in the preparation of the ECBC. However the risk of human injury associated with the increased glass use was out of scope of the ECBC, and remains unaddresed by this or any of the previous standards.

The "Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety" prepared by CCPS thus address a very important need in the industry. These Guidelines, for the first time in Indian construction industry, have been prepared using the consensus process entirely lead by the private sector, and supported not only by the industry but also the government and other stakeholders.

The process has involved the stakeholders in preparing these guidelines through the Steering Committee, which has decided the scope and the methodology, and at each stage suggested the changes and approved the drafts. In order to ensure the integrity of the process the changes at each stage were discussed and minutes have been documented. The meetings have been held at Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore, so as to ensure the participation of various organizations and professionals throughout India.

Finally for a period of one month the draft guidelines were made available for public review. The guidelines have been sent to over 1000 architects, builders, contractors, government officials from municipalities, development authorities and others for comments. The feedback received has been presented to the Steering Committee and the final draft in the form of this publication has been approved in the steering committee meeting held on the 2nd November, 2007. A decision has also been taken to setup a review mechanism for regularly updating the guidelines in view of changes in the building environment and capabilities in the industry. This will ensure that the document remains updated and answers the need of times in the future also.

We would like to thank all the members of the Steering Committee, special invitees and all those who have taken some time out from their busy schedule to contribute to making of this document. Without their interest and efforts, this guideline would not have taken shape. I would also like to thank the Secretariat at CCPS that has worked to research and draft and redraft the document; and has coordinated and brought on one platform a very distinguished Steering Committee. I believe that this document will be helpful to all those who are specifying glass for use in buildings and those who are manufacturing and processing glass for buildings and ultimately will help us improve safety and well being of the users. We will look forward to your comments and suggestions for improvements in days to come.

Deepak Gahlowt, Architect, Convener Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS)

New Delhi November 2007

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

1.0 Scope

1.1 The scope of these guidelines covers minimum human safety requirement subjected to various kinds of human impact, precautions against risk of fall and falling glass. Conditions outside of 'human impact' are not in the purview of this document. 1.2 This guide does not assume that the safety glass used in accordance to this document will not be broken under all human impact conditions, rather:

a) It will not be broken under most likely forms of human impact and, b) Even if it breaks the likelihood of cutting or piercing injuries will be minimized by virtue of the protection given to the glass, or by the limited size or increased thickness, or by the fracture characteristics of the glass.

1.3 Further this guide does not deal with the safety and security of people or goods in relation to risks of:

a) Vandalism, riots, burglary or break in protection, b) Fire arm protection, c) Protection from explosion (terrorist attack), d) Natural disasters like Earthquake, Hurricane, Fire etc., e) Plastic glazing, safety and security glazing etc.

1.4 In circumstances wherein the requirements of other standards exceeds the requirements of this guideline and, in such cases the higher requirement shall become applicable.

1.5 The use of this document must also be in conformity with all other relevant codes on fire safety, structural stability, natural disasters, safety and security etc.

2.0 Safety Glass

2.1 Glazing material constructed, treated, or combined with other materials so as to reduce, in comparison with ordinary sheet, float or plate glass, the likelihood of injury to persons by objects from exterior sources or by these safety glasses when they may be cracked or broken. 10

2.2 The following are the products in the scope of this document that may be used in safety glazing provided they meet the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) conditions and are marked accordingly. Safety glass shall be of four types as follows: a) Toughened Safety (Tempered) Glass (TS) b) Toughened Float Safety Glass (TF) c) Laminated Safety Glass (LS) d) Laminated Float Safety Glass (LF)

(IS : 2553, Part 1)

2.2.1 Toughened (Tempered) Safety Glass : A single piece of specially heat-treated or chemically treated glass, with a stress pattern such that the piece when fractured reduces to numerous granular fragments, with no large jagged edges. (IS : 2553, Part 1)

2.2.2 Laminated Safety Glass : Two or more pieces of glass held together by an interleaving layer or layers of plastic materials. The laminated glass will crack and break under sufficient impact, but the pieces of glass tend to adhere to the plastic and do not fly. If a hole is produced, the edges are likely to be less jagged than that would be the case with ordinary glass (IS : 2553, Part 1).

2.3 Safety glass can be flat or curved and of any type which includes:- Clear, Tinted, Coated, Frosted, Decorative or Mirror. Glasses shall satisfy the relevant resistance to shock test, fragmentation test and warp test for TS and TF glass and LS and LF glass shall comply with light stability test, boil test and fracture and adhesion test in accordance with IS 2553 (Part 1). 2.4 PRECAUTIONS

2.4.1 All heat-treated glasses are not safety glasses and all laminated, toughened and safety organic coated glasses are not safety glasses. Heat strengthened glasses and annealed glasses are not classified as safety glasses unless laminated to meet the test specified for safety glass in Annexure 3 of this document. Glass laminated with other than polyvinyl butyral (PVB) may not classify the requirement of safety glass. Only glass that meets the test criteria as defined at annexure 3, Table F is expected to qualify as safety glass.

3.0 Application/Installation 3.1 GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATION1

3.1.1 Many human impact injuries are due to failure to take reasonable safety precautions. Some materials, such as glass, may break under impact and cause injury. Most people are aware of this and treat such materials with due care. However a person's ability to perceive this potential risk and to cope with it can vary. Safety standards are therefore based on a number of factors including the assumption of a reasonable level of awareness and behaviour and also suitable product design and choice of materials. 3.1.2 Accident statistics show that glazing in some locations in buildings is more vulnerable to human impact than in others. These critical locations are: a) In-and-around doors (particularly side panels may be mistaken for doors), b) At low levels in walls and partitions.

3.1.3 The designer, or specifier, should take precautions to reduce the risk of injuries from accidental human impact in these locations by:

a) Selecting glass of a suitable type, thickness and size, primarily with reference to impact behaviour and safety characteristics as established by testing in accordance with this guide, b) Providing mechanical protection to glass in critical locations, to prevent fall of glass under impact. c) Enhancing a person's awareness of the presence of glass by incorporating manifestation as mentioned in clause 3.4.

3.1.4 Glass in locations other than critical locations is not likely to be subject to human impact and consequently not likely to cause injury. 3.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION1

3.2.1 The principal design considerations to be taken into account by the designer, or specifier, when

selecting glass should be: a) The properties of materials, in particular their breakage characteristics; b) Structural integrity of glazing systems supporting the glass. c) The type of the building and its use, in particular the number and likely behaviour of the people expected to be in close proximity to the glass in critical locations; d) Requirements for fire, security and wind loading. e) Thermal breakage, energy efficiency and deflection, vision, acoustics and other consideration. f) Impact of trolleys, carts, luggage etc. used have to be considered when required. 3.3 INSTALLATION OF GLASS

3.3.1 Design of the glazing system should be such that it has the ability to hold glass in place and prevent it from falling out as a whole.

3.3.2 For guidance on installation of glass following standards may be referred.

a) IS : 3548 - 1988 - Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings b) IS : 10439 - 1983 - Code of Practice for Patent Glazing c) BS : 8213: Part 4: 1990 - Windows, Doors and Rooflights: Code of Practice for the Installation of Replacement Windows and Doorsets in Dwellings d) BS : 6262: Part 6: 1997 - Code of Practice for Glazing for Buildings: Special Applications e) BS : 8000: part 7: 1990 - Workmanship on Building sites - Code of Practice for Glazing f) AS : 1288 - 2006; Section 8 and 9 - Glass in Buildings - Selection and Installation g) BS : 5516-1:2004: Patent Glazing and Sloped Glazing for buildings - Code of practice for design and installation. h) Glass Association of North America Installation Guide.

3.4 MANIFESTATION2

3.4.1 Presence of glass in a door, side panel or a panel

BS 6262: Part 4: 1994 - Code of Practice for Glazing for Buildings - Safety related to Human Impact AS: : 1288-2006, Glass in Building - Selection and Installation

1 2

11

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

capable of being mistaken for a doorway or opening, which are not made apparent by transoms, colonial bars, other components of glazing system, or other decorative treatment, such as being opaque, or patterned, the glass be marked to make it visible. 3.4.2 Marking shall be in the form an opaque band not less than 20 mm in height and located so that the vertical distance from the floor level is not less than 700 mm from the upper edge of the band and not more than 1200 mm to the lower edge of the band. 3.4.3 The band shall be such that it is readily apparent and it can be achieved by contrasting the band with background or by increasing height of band. Safety glazing cannot be substituted by making the glass visible by marking. 3.4.4 A band or marking is not required where any one of the following applies:

a) Height of the glass is not greater than 1000 mm at any part, b) The width of the glass is not greater than 500 mm at any part (this applies to overall panel assembly - not individual glass pieces in case of faceted glazing), c) Within 750 mm of the floor there is no glass. d) Where there is no glass within 750 mm of the floor. e) The glass is provided with at least one fixed glazing bar, firmly attached to the styles to locate and protect each face of the glass. At least one transom (glazing bar) shall be located with its upper edge not less than 500 mm and its bottom edge not more than 1000 mm above the floor level. The glazing bar shall have a face width not less than 40 mm ± 3 mm.

3.4.5 Alternatively patterns may be used as an acceptable form of marking provided it meets the other criteria set in this guideline.

4.0 Identification of Safety Glass

relevant standards. 4.2 Either a label that cannot be removed and reused or a permanent mark on the glass surface shall mark all the panels of safety glass according to Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

4.3 Each label must contain the ISI mark as prescribed by the BIS, manufacturers name, registered trademark or code of the manufacturer or supplier, type of safety glass material, the standard or guidelines to which the safety glass has been tested and the grade of test classification.

5.0 Critical Locations 5.1 DEFINITION

5.1.1 Critical locations are parts of a building most likely to be subject to accidental human impact. 5.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CRITICAL LOCATIONS3

5.2.1 Where any glazing is within 1.5 metre above the floor level of a building, it is considered likely to be subjected to human impact and hence, shall comply with the human impact safety requirements of this guide. Safety glazing material should also be used:

5.2.2 Accident statistics show that the glazing in some locations in buildings are more vulnerable to human impact than in others. These critical locations, some of which have been shown in Table A, include the following:

4.1 All Safety glasses shall be procured from certified manufacturers and the product shall conform to AS : 1288-2006, Glass in building - Selection and Installation

3

12

a) Where there is danger of falling infill glass materials from overhead glazing, b) The danger of falling due to a change in floor level, c) In case of balustrades, stairs and floors.

a) b) c) d) e)

In-and-around doors, low windows, Panels mistaken for a doorway or opening, Panels at low levels in walls and partitions, Bathrooms, Building associated with special activities, e.g. gymnasia, enclosed swimming pools etc., f) Schools and child care facilities,

g) Nursing Homes and aged care facilities. 5.2.3. Precautions should be taken to reduce the injuries that can result from glass breakage by: a) Selecting glass of a suitable type, thickness and size, b) Enhancing a person's awareness of the presence of glass by making glass visible

(manifestation), c) Minimizing manual handling of large pieces of glass during installation.

5.2.4. Based on the above facts and to avoid confusion regarding the type of the glass for a particular location as mentioned above, this guide has given details on the basis of five cases found in common accidental cases.

13

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Table A - Safety Glass required in different buildings with their locations (to be read in association with notes only) Case 1 Vertical walls with residual protection# or Hs > 0.75m (not likely to be subjected to human impact)

Case 2 Vertical walls Hs < 0.75m & Hf < 1.5m (human impact but no risk of fall)

Case 3 Vertical walls Hs < 0.75m & Hf >1.5m (human impact and risk of fall both)

Case 4 Horizontal or Sloped Glazing (risk of fall)

Case 5 Glass acting as a balustrade / parapet / railing (human impact and risk of fall both)

Glass shelter

Glass

Curtain Glass wall

Glass partition

Residual protection

Fig. 4

Fig. 1

Glass window

Type of glass

Examples

Fig. 6

Skylight Glass

Fig. 3

Fig. 5

Fig. 2

Any glass*

Safety glass

Safety glass**

Please refer to note 4 # Residual protection is the safeguard provided to avoid the impact of human being to glass. It is provided on the side of glass where there are chances of Human impact. It can be achieved by providing protection in form of a sill structure or transom, chair rail or a grill inside. Refer note 6 against falling of glass.

- Doors - Side Panels - Curtain Walls - Glazed Area - Doors in Bathroom, a) Fully Framed b) Partially Framed c) Frameless - Façade - Windows - Internal Partitions and Doors - External Facade and Doors on ground floor, above floors with terraces outside.

- Curtain Walls - Façade - Spandrels - High Activity Area - High Risk Area - To avoid risk

Also see figures at Annexure 1.

*Safety glass is not mandatory

14

Glass panel in Railing Glass Bus shelter

Also see figures at Annexure 1.

Fig. 8

Fig. 7

Laminated safety glass - Roof (Skylight Roof) - Ceilings - Bus Shelters - Floors - Stairs - Sloped Facade

Laminated safety glass - Balustrades - Parapet - Railing

For definition of sloped glazing please refer to Annexure 4 Also see figures at Annexure 1. **Laminated float glass is preferred

Also see figures at Annexure 1.

Also see figures at Annexure 1.

NOTES TO TABLE A Note 1: 'Hf 'corresponds to height of fall of human or glass in case of change in level and 'Hs' corresponds to the sill height with reference to floor height. Note 2: In case of mirror glazing, it should confirm to the requirements of other safety glasses unless it is fully backed by a solid material. (AS : 1288-2006) Note 3: In case 2 and 3, if the smaller dimension of the pane is 250 mm or less and its area is 0.5 sqm or less, glass not conforming to safety glass requirements may be used, provided that its nominal thickness is not less than 6mm. (applicable to vertical glazing) (BS : 6262 part 4 1994) Note 4: Toughened or Laminated safety glass should meet respective test requirements as mentioned in Annexure 3 of this document to qualify as safety glazing. (AS : 1288-2006, IS 2553) Note 5: The effective Toughened safety glass thickness and/or Laminated safety glass configuration shall be determined case by case with regard to: - Other solicitations (wind load, snow load, dead load, and human load) - The overall dimension (length / width, or surface) - The aspect ratio of the glass (length / width) - The glazing fixing type (framing, bolted system, structural system etc.). (AS : 1288-2006) Note 6: Precautions against chances of injuries due to broken glass falling on people: (a) Broken annealed glass falling on people can cause grievous or even fatal injuries; hence it is recommended to use safety glass in locations other than defined in case 1 where the risk of people getting hurt by falling glass is high. (b) Toughened (tempered) glass has a safe breakage pattern, as it breaks and disintegrates into small and relatively harmless particles. However thick toughened glass particles may stay interlocked and fall as lumps of these multiple particles and can cause a minor or medium injury mainly due to the weight of the cluster.

(c) Laminated safety glass will generally not fall out of fixing. However, where laminated glass with both glasses toughened, used for horizontal or sloped glazing is used, in case of failure of both toughened glasses, it may crumple as a blanket and fall out of fixing. This factor needs to be considered while designing horizontal and sloped glazing. (d) Any broken glass in any glazing should be removed immediately on breakage. (e) Strength of the glazing system should be such that it has the ability to hold glass in place and prevent it from falling out as a whole. Note 7: For inclusion of glass in furnitures the following standards may be referred: (a) BS 7499:1991 - Specification for inclusion of glass in the construction of furniture, other than tables or trolleys, including cabinets, shelving systems and wall hung or free standing mirrors. (b) BS 7376:1990 - Specification for inclusion of glass in the construction of tables or trolleys. (c) IS 7760:1985 - Specification for steel glassfront cabinet. (d) BS EN 1727:1998 - Domestic furniture, storage furniture, safety requirements and test methods. (e) BS EN 1153: 1996 - Kitchen furniture, safety requirements and test methods for builtin and free standing kitchen cabinets and work tops. Note 8: In case of external laminated glass facades, openable portions have to be left at regular distances for fire fighting and smoke exhaust. Note 9: If Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) is used in situations mentioned in this guide then any one of the following will apply: i) If IGU is installed in areas subjected to human impact on either side then both the panes of the unit shall meet the requirements of this guide. ii) In situations where access is restricted to one side of the unit, then only the accessible side should meet the requirements of this guide (AS : 1288-2006). Note 10: For definitions and explanation of terms see Annexure 4.

15

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Summary

Requirements for Use of Glass in Buildings Human Safety

1.0 Scope – The scope of these guidelines covers minimum safety requirements subjected to various kinds of human impact, precautions against risk of fall and falling glass.

2.0 Safety Glass – Safety glass shall be of four types as follows: a) b) c) d)

Toughened Safety (Tempered) Glass (TS) Toughened Float Safety Glass (TF) Laminated Safety Glass (LS) Laminated Float Safety Glass (LF)

Glass at ‘b’ and ‘d’ shall be preferred.

3.0 Critical Locations – Critical locations are parts of a building most likely to be subjected to accidental human impact. Where any glazing is within 1.5 metre above the floor level of building, it is considered likely to be subjected to human impact and hence, shall comply with the human impact safety requirements as laid down below. Safety glazing material should also be used: a) Where there is danger of falling infill glass materials from overhead glazing b) Where there is danger of falling due to a change in floor level c) In case of balustrades, stairs and floors.

However, if the smaller dimension of pane is 250 mm or less and its area is 0.50 sqm or less, glass not conforming to safety requirements can also be used. 3.1 Classification of Critical Locations – The critical locations with appropriate types of glass allowed for use are listed in the following five cases.

Case1: Glass used as Vertical Walls (not likely to be subjected to Human Impact) Hs ≥ 0.75 m or with Residual Protection Type of Glass to be used: Any glass (Safety Glass not mandatory ) Case 2: Glass used as Vertical Walls (Human Impact

16

but no risk of fall) Hs < 0.75m and Hf ≤ 1.5 m Type of Glass to be used: Safety glass (TF or LF)

Case 3: Glass used as Vertical Walls (Human Impact and risk of fall both) Hs < 0.75m and Hf ≥ 1.5m Type of glass to be used: Safety glass (LF preferred) Case 4: Glass used in Horizontal or sloped glazing (Risk of fall) Type of glass to be used: Laminated safety glass (LF) Case 5: Glass acting as a balustrade, parapet or a railing (Human Impact and risk of fall both) Type of glass to be used: Laminated safety glass (LF)

Residual protection is the protection provided to avoid the impact of human being to glass. e.g. sill structure or transom, balustrade or railing, or grill inside. Hs = Sill height, Hf = Falling height in case of change in level between the two sides of glass

4.0 Manifestation – Clear glass panels capable of being mistaken for an unimpeded path of travel should be marked to make them visible by incorporating manifestation. Manifestation employed shall be in form of opaque band of size not less than 20 mm in height and located at vertical distance from floor level to not less than 700 mm from upper edge of band and not more than 1200 mm to lower edge of the band. The manifestation shall preferably be permanent, e.g. etching of the glazing, but alternatively, if applied materials are used they shall be durable and not easily removed. 5.0 Identification of Safety Glass – All Safety Glass shall be indelibly and distinctly marked with type of glass, name or logo to identify the manufacturer, thickness of glass and BIS certification mark. Stickers are not permitted for these markings.

6.0 Safety Glass Test requirements – Glasses shall satisfy the relevant resistance to shock test, fragmentation test, warp test for TS and TF glass and LS and LF glass shall comply with light stability test, boil test and fracture and adhesion test in accordance with IS 2553 (Part 1).

7.0 Precautions – The following precautions should be taken to reduce the injuries that can result from glass breakage by:

a) Selecting glass of a suitable type, thickness and size, b) Enhancing the person’s awareness of the presence of glass by making glass visible (manifestation)

c) Minimizing manual handling of large pieces of glass during installation. d) In case of external laminated glass facades, openable portions have to be left at regular distances as required for fire fighting and smoke exhaust. e) Laminated glass with both glass panes toughened will not classify as safety glass.

17

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Annexure 1: Sketches of examples for cases 1 to 5, Table A

CASE 1: Vertical walls - with residual protection or Hs > 0.75m (not likely to be subjected to human impact).

Glass

Fig. 9

Residual protection

Grill

Fig. 11

18

Glass window

Fig. 10

Transom

Fig. 12

CASE 2: Vertical walls ; Hs < 0.75m & Hf < 1.5m (human impact but no risk of fall)

Glass partition

Glass door/ Glass partition

Fig. 13

Fig. 14

CASE 3: Vertical walls; Hs < 0.75m & Hf >1.5m (human impact and risk of fall both)

Curtain Glass wall

Fig. 15

Glass

Fig. 16

19

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

CASE 4: Horizontal or Sloped Glazing (risk of fall) Glass shelter Skylight

Fig. 17

Glass Bus shelter

Fig. 18

CASE 5: Glass acting as a balustrade, parapet or a railing (human impact and risk of fall both)

Glass panel in Railing

Fig. 19

20

Glass Railing

Fig. 20

Annexure 2: Correlation between maximum glass area and glass thickness (Impact Load) The annexure prescribes minimum thickness requirement based on area of pane of glass subjected to human impact. The annexure details out the minimum thickness requirement for various support condition as well as height of residual protection by provision of Sill, Chair Rail, barricade, grill or transoms. A: FOUR SIDES FRAMED GLASS

In case of framed glass panels supported on four sides starting between the finished floor level and less than or equal to 750 mm as described in case 2 & case 3 given in Table A the maximum allowable area of the glass panel corresponding to thickness is as follows: a) Maximum area of normal or annealed glass less than or equal to 0.5 sqm. b) The maximum area of the safety glass with respect to its thickness shall be within the permissible maximum area as defined in the Table B below. Table B : Maximum Permissible area of Safety Glass corresponding to thickness Type of Glass

Nominal Thickness (mm)

Tempered Safety Glass

4 5 6 8 10 12

Laminated Safety Glass

6 8 10 12

Maximum allowable area (sqm) 2 3 4 6 8 10 2 3 5 7

(AS : 1288 - 2006) In case of laminated glass the thickness of PVB is not accounted

c) In case of glass panels supported on all four sides starting greater than or equal to 750 mm or a protection / transom / chair rail is in place

permanently from the finished floor level as given in Case 1, Table A, the thickness of annealed glass shall be with in the permissible maximum area as defined in Table C below.

Table C : Maximum Permissible area of Annealed Glass corresponding to thickness in case of glass panes supported on all four sides Type of Glass

Annealed Glass

Nominal Thickness (mm) 4 5 6 8 10 12

Maximum allowable area (sqm) 0.8 1.2 2.1 3.2 4.4 6.3

(AS : 1288 - 2006)

B: TWO / THREE SIDES FRAMED GLASS

In case of glass panel supported on two / three sides starting` greater than or equal to 750 mm or has a protection from the finished floor level as given in Case 1, Table A, then annealed glass can be used in following cases as mentioned in Table D else tempered or laminated glass shall be used.

Table D : Maximum Permissible area of Annealed Glass corresponding to thickness in case of glass panes supported on two/three sides Nominal Maximum Thickness allowable height (mm) of glass (m) 6mm 8mm 10mm

< 1.2 > 1.2 to < 1.6 > 1.6 to < 2

Maximum allowable glass area (sqm) 0.9 1.8 2.7

(AS : 1288 - 2006)

B: FRAMELESS / NON-FRAMED GLASS

In case of frameless or non-framed glass panel toughened safety or laminated safety glass shall be used. 21

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

The thickness of safety glass and corresponding maximum permissible area is given in the following Table E: Table E : Maximum Permissible area corresponding to thickness in case of frameless glass panel

Type of Glass

Safety Glass

Nominal Thickness (mm) 6 8 10 12

Maximum allowable area (sqm) 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5

In all above cases and in cases wherein the glass area exceeds 7.5 sqm. it is recommended to check and determine thickness of the glass using finite element analysis under wind load as per IS : 875 (part 3) :1987 (reaffirmed 1997) for external glazing. (AS : 1288 - 2006)

22

C: POINT SUPPORTED GLASS

For point fixed system the glass area and glass thickness shall be determined by the specific strength analysis and type of point fixing hardware.

Note: If Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) is used in situations mentioned in this guide then any one of the following will apply: i) If IGU is installed in areas subjected to h u m a n impact on either side then both the panes of the unit shall meet the requirements of this guide. The maximum area specified may be multiplied by 1.5 provided that each of the component glass of the unit otherwise complies with the relevant paras of this guideline. ii) In situations where access is restricted to one side of the unit, then only the accessible side should meet the requirements of this guide without the application of above- mentioned factor of 1.5.

Annexure 3: Safety Glass Test Requirements Relevant tests required for safety glasses are given in Table F below: TABLE F

Test

Toughened Safety Glass

Laminated Safety Glass

Resistance to shock test

YES

-

Fragmentation test Warp Test

YES

Boil Test

YES

-

-

YES

-

YES

Fracture and Adhesion Test

Light Stability Test

-

-

YES

Standard to be referred

IS : 2553 (Part 1) - 1990

In the above table 'YES' indicates test to be conducted. Boil test for heat strengthened and toughened laminated glass can use laminates from ordinary annealed glass manufactured simultaneously.

23

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Annexure 4: Definitions

For the purpose of this guide the definitions given below will apply: Area

: The area of a panel between sightlines after glazing, calculated using the sight size.

Aspect Ratio

: The ratio of a longer side of panel to its shorter side.

Annealed Glass

Balustrade

Back Putty Beads or Glazing Beads Bite Bedding Putty

Bent Glass

: Another term for "ordinary" glass, most commonly used for float glass

: A low wall forming a parapet to a stair, ramp, balcony, raised level, or a change in level.

: The portion of the putty remaining between the glass and the depth of the rebate after the glass has been pushed into position.

: A strip of wood, metal or other suitable material attached to the rebate to retain the glass.

: The width of silicone used to bond the fin or frame member to the edge of the glass panel.

: The compound placed in the rebate of the opening into which the glass is bedded.

: Flat glass that has been shaped while into hot cylindrical or other curved shapes.

Bevelling

: The process of edge finishing flat glass to a bevel angle.

Building

: A structure, constructed with any matrials whatsoever for any purpose whether used for any habitation or not and includes - “Assembly building”, which means a building or part thereof where groups of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreations, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purpose. “Assembly building” includes buildings of drama and cinema theatre, drive-in-theatres, assembly halls, city halls, town halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, mangal karyalayas, skating rinks, gymnasia stadia, restaurants, eating or boarding houses, places of worship, dance halls, clubs, gymkhanas, road, air, sea or other public transportation stations and recreation piers.

Block (Setting Block)

Business Building

Chair Rail

Clear Glass

24

: A small piece of wood, lead or other suitable material used between the edges of the glass (generally the bottom edge only) to centralize the glass in the frame (frequently called a setting block).

: Any building or part thereof used for transaction of business and / or keeping of accounts and record therefore offices, banks, professional establishments, court houses being classified as business buildings, if their principal function is transaction of business and / or keeping of books and records.

: A fixed glazing bar, or rigid push bar, that provides protection from human impact. : Transparent glass.

Conbustible material Corridor

: The material which when burnt adds heat to a fire when tested for combustibility in accordance with the IS 3808-1966: Method of Test for Combustibility of Building Materials, National Building Code. : It means a common passage or circulation space including a common hall.

Curtain Wall

: Non load bearing structure / partition of glass attached in a frame

Door

: A hinged, sliding or otherwise supported openable barrier providing entrance to and exit from a building, corridor or room. Doors may be framed or unframed.

Distance Piece

Double Glazing

: A small piece of wood, lead or other suitable material used to locate the glass between the bead and the back of the rebate, and prevent lateral movement.

: Glazing that incorporates two panels, separated with an air space, for the purpose of sound insulation or thermal insulation or both.

Edge Polished

: Usually applied to flat glass, the edges of which have been polished after cutting.

Exposed Edge

: A glass edge that is not covered.

Edging

External Wall Facade

Faceted Glazing Fin

Fire resistant

Fire Separation Flat Glass

Float Glass Frame

: Grinding the edge of flat glass, to a desired shape or size.

: An outer wall of a building not being a party wall even though adjoining a wall of another building and also means a wall abutting on an interior open space of any building. : Front or face of the building.

: Flat panes of glass installed vertically at an angle to each other, to form a faceted curve. : A piece of glass positioned and fastened to provide lateral support.

: It means the time during which a fire resistant material i.e. material having a certain degree of fire resistance, fulfills its function of contributing to the fire safety of a building when subjected to prescribed conditions of heat and load or restraint. The fire resistance test of structures shall be done in accordance with IS 3809-1966 Fire Resistance Test of Structure.

: It means the distance in metre measured from any other building on the site or from another site or from the opposite side of a street or other public space to the building. : A general term covering sheet glass, float glass and various forms of rolled and plate glass.

: A form of flat glass produced by reheating the continuous ribbon of glass whilst it floats over a bath of molten metal.

: A structure manufactured from timber, metal, glass or other durable material or combinations of materials such as glass fins and structural sealant, supporting the full length of a glazed panel edge. 25

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Frameless Glazing

Front Putty

Fully framed glazing Glass

Glazing Guarding Heat Soaking

Heat Strengthened Glass Heat Strengthened Laminated Safety Glass

: See unframed glazing.

: The compound forming a triangular fillet between the surface of the glass and the front edge of the rebate. : Panels that have all edges framed.

: An inorganic, non-metallic material produced by the complete fusion of raw materials at high temperatures, into a homogeneous liquid, which is then cooled to a rigid, condition essentially without crystallization.

: The securing of glass in prepared openings in windows, door panels, partitions and the like. : Glass used to prevent people falling wherever there is a change in floor level by means of a permanent barrier.

: Heat Soaking is done on toughened glass by reheating to a temperature of 290 C and keeping it at this temperature for eight hours and cooling it gradually. The glass can break spontaneously and without provocation due to possible impurity of Nickel Sulphide in basic glass used for tempering. This risk of spontaneous breakage can be minimised by heat soaking process by forcing such glasses to break in the factory itself. o

: Glass which has been heated past its softening point and chilled rapidly to increase its strength and make it thermally safe, but which breaks like annealed glass. : Laminated Safety Glass utilizing two or more panels of heat-strengthened glass in the make up.

High Activity Area

: Where multiple human activity takes place.

Infill balustrades

: Balustrades in which the supported glass resists an infill pressure and / or point load applied to the glass panel.

High Risk Area

Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Internal Partition Laminated Glass Laminated Safety Glass Maximum Thickness 26

: Area prone to human injury.

: The standard configuration for residential and commercial windows consisting of a sealed unit of two panes of glass separated by a metal spacer.

: An interior dividing wall or such portion of an interior dividing wall that is not a door, side panel, shopfront or atrium wall.

: A composite material consisting of two or more sheets of glass permanently bonded together by a plastic interlayer material.

: Laminated glass that satisfies the requirements for a safety glazing material according to this guide. : The thickness of a panel of glass at the maximum thickness tolerance.

Manifestation Minimum Thickness

Mirror

Nominal Thickness Non-combustible

: Any technique for enhancing a person's awareness of the presence of transparent glazed areas. : The thickness of a panel of glass at the minimum thickness tolerance.

: A piece of glass silvered on one side, with a protective paint coating.

: A numeric designation used for reference purposes that indicates the approximate thickness of glass.

: It means not liable to burn to add heat to a fire when tested for combustibility in accordance with the IS:3808-1966, Method of Test for Combustibility of Building Materials.

Non-residential Buildings : Buildings other than those defined above such as hotels, hostels, motels, shops, offices, schools, public assembly buildings, and factories and those parts of the residential buildings common to a group of dwellings such as common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

Pane

: Single piece of glass cut to size for glazing.

Parapet

: It means a low wall or railing built along the edge of the roof or a floor.

Panel

: An assembly containing one or more panes.

Partition

: It means an interior non-load bearing divider, one storey or part storey in height.

Patterned Glass

: Rolled glass having a distinct pattern on one or both surfaces.

Partly framed glazing Rebate

Reflective Coated Glass Residential Buildings Residual protection Safety organic-coated

: Panels that have one or more edges unframed.

: The part of a surround; the cross section of which forms an angle into which the edge of the glass is received.

: Glass with metallic or metallic oxide coating applied onto or into the glass surface to provide reduction of solar radiant energy, conductive heat energy and visible light transmission.

: Buildings and such portions of buildings used as separate dwelling houses and flats, but not incorporating common circulation areas in blocks of two or more flats.

: It is the protection provided to avoid the impact of human being to glass. It is provided on the side of glass where there are chances of Human impact. It can be achieved by providing a sill structure or a grill inside.

: A glazing material consisting of a piece of glass coated and permanently bonded on one or both sides with a continuous polymeric coating, sheet or film, which meets the test requirements of the safety glazing standards.

Shower doors, shower : The panels, doors or windows a enclosing or partially enclosing a shower or bath. screens and bath enclosures

27

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

Side Panel Sloped overhead glazing Span Spandrel

: A panel (operable or inoperable) located adjacent to a doorway. It may or may not be in the same plane as the doorway.

: Glazing that is inclined at less than 75 degrees to the horizontal and located, wholly or partially, directly above an area that may be used by people.

: The dimension between supports. For panels supported on all four edges, it corresponds to the smaller of the sight size dimensions. : That portion of the exterior wall of a multistory commercial building that covers the area below the sill of the vision glass installation.

Tempered or Toughened Glass

: When float glass panels are heated and then cooled rapidly in a controlled environment.

Transom

: Horizontal bar of wood, aluminium or stone etc. across a window, door or partition.

Tinted Glass

: Normal float glass to which colorants are added during manufacturing process to achieve tinting and solar radiation absorption properties.

Toughened laminated safety glass

: Laminated safety glass utilizing two panels of toughened safety glass in the make up.

Wardrobe doors

: Doors that provide access to built in storage areas, excluding those fitted to pieces of furniture that are not built into the building.

Unframed glazing

: Panels without framed edges.

Wind Load

: Load on glass because of the speed and direction of wind.

Window Sill

: Solid wall (brick or concrete wall) starting from the finised floor level to the base of first window or structural member consisting of a continuous horizontal metal/wooden forming the lowest member of a framework or supporting structure.

Window

28

: It means an opening other than a door, to the outside of a building which provides all or part of the required natural light, ventilation

Annexure 5: References -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

IS : 2553 (Part 1) - 1990 - Safety Glass Specification. IS : 2835 - 1987 - Specification for Flat Transparent Sheet Glass (third revision) IS : 875 (Part 3) Reaffirmed 1997 - Codes for the Wind Loads. IS : 3548 - 1988 - Code of Practice for Glazing in Buildings IS : 10439 - 1983 - Code of Practice for Patent Glazing IS : 7760:1985 - Specification for steel glass-front cabinet 16 CFR Ch II (1-1-04 Edition) - Part 1201 - Safety Standards for architectural glazing materials. ANSI Z 97.1 - 1984 (R1994) - Safety Glazing Materials - Used in Buildings - Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Tests. AS : 2208 - 1996 - Safety Glazing Materials in Buildings AS : 1288 - 2006 - Glass in Buildings - Selection and Installation. BS : 6206 - Part 4 - 1995 - Specifications for impact performance requirements for flat safety glass and safety plastics for use in buildings BS : 6262 - Part 4 - 1994 - Code of Practice for Glazing for Buildings - Safety related to Human Impact BS : 6262 - Part 6 - 1997 - Code of Practice for Glazing for Buildings: Special Applications BS : 952 - For nominal thickness of glass. BS : 8000 - part 7 - 1990 - Workmanship on Building Sites - Code of Practice for Glazing

-

-

-

-

-

BS : 5516-1 - 2004 - Patent Glazing and Sloped Glazing for Buildings - Code of Practice for Design and Installation. BS : 8213 - Part 4 - 1990 - Windows, Doors and Rooflights: Code of Practice for the Installation of Replacement Windows and Doorsets in Dwellings BS EN : 12600 - 2002 - Glass in buildings Pendulum tests - Impact test method and classification for flat glass BS : 7499 - 1991 - Specification for inclusion of glass in the construction of furniture, other than tablesor trolleys, including cabinets, shelving systems and wall hung or free standing mirrors BS : 7376 - 1990 - Specification for inclusion of glass in the construction of tables or trolleys BS EN : 1727 - 1998 - Domestic furniture, storage furniture, safety requirements and test methods BS EN : 1153 - 1996 - Kitchen furniture, safety requirements and test methods for built-in and free standing kitchen cabinets and work tops JIS R 3206 : 1997 - Tempered Glass JIS R 3205 : 1998 - Laminated Glass DIN 52 337 : Methods of testing flat glass for use in buildings - pendulum impact tests. Glass Association of North America Installation Guide. Guidelines for Use of Glass in Buildings, by Dr. N.K. Garg, Professor, Faculty of Architecture, MIT, MAHE, Manipal and Former Head, H & P Division, Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee, India.

29

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

LIST OF STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS

A Steering Committee on “Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Part A : Human Safety” was constituted to ensure the integrity of the process and the acceptance of the recommendations of the committee by the industry. Four meetings of Steering Committee, two in Delhi, and one each in Mumbai and Bangalore were organized. Apart from the discussion of the draft in Steering Committee meetings, it was widely circulated amongst the Architects, Engineers and Professionals to solicit comments and views to ensure preparation of documents useful acceptable and adoptable to the industry. The role of Steering Committee was to: 1. Guide and support the secretariat in its functioning 2. Assist and advise and if possible share responsibility in background research, analysis, preparation of draft report 3. Review and confirm the draft report 4. Assist and advise on wider feedback to the draft report. 5. Review and confirm the final report

Below is the list of the members of the Steering Committee: 1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. 11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16. 17.

18.

19.

20.

21. 22.

23.

24. 25.

30

Mr. Abhijit Ray, Architect, The Indian Institute of Architects, Delhi Mr. A. B. Bhalerao, Director, Garware Polyester Ltd., Aurangabad Mr. Ajay Patwardhan, GLS Business Manager - India/ ASEAN, EI Dupont India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon Mr. A. K. Jain, Commissioner Planning, Delhi Development Authority (DDA), Delhi Mr. A. K. Singhal, Chief Engineer, Public Works Department (PWD) - Delhi, Delhi Mr. Alok Taparia, AGM Marketing, HNG Float Glass Ltd., Delhi Mr. Amit Malhotra, Managing Director, McCoy Silicones Ltd., Delhi Mr. Anand Jain, Project Manager, Saint Gobain Ltd., Chennai Mr. Anuj Munot, Director, Kalpataru Properties Private Limited, Mumbai Mr. Aprameya Kar, Architect, Unitech Ltd., Gurgaon Mr. Arun Sharma, Managing Director, Trosifol India Private Limited, Delhi Mr. Ashok B Lal, Architect, TVB School Of Habitat Studies, Delhi Mr. Ashok Kumar, Architect Scientist - Housing & Planning, Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee Mr. Ashok Menon, Division Head - Construction Market Center, 3M India Ltd., Bangalore Mr. Ashok Shintre, Chief Engineer (DP), Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai Mr. Balbir Verma, Architect, Balbir & Associates, Delhi Mr. B.L Moolchandani, Chief Engineer 1st, Rajasthan Housing Board, Jaipur Mr. Deepak Malik, Executive Director, ABC Group, Bangalore Mr. Deependra Prashad, Architect, Secretary, International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture & Urbanism (INTBAU), Delhi Mr. Dhananjay Dhake, Architect, Construction Catalysers Pvt. Ltd., Pune Mr. Feroz Kachwala, Director, FG Glass, Mumbai Dr. Gerard Savineau, Architectural Applications Manager, Saflex Interlayers, France Mr. G. P. Savlani, Resident Director, Confederation of Real Estate Developers Associations of India, Delhi Mr. Ingawale V. D., Executive Engineer, Building Proposal Department of M.C.G.M., Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai Mr. Jatinder Wasan, MD, Sky Frames, Delhi

26. Mr. K. Nagaraj, Architect, CPG Corporation, Bangalore 27. Mr. K.K. Mutreja, Engineer-in-Chief (Retd.), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC), Delhi 28. Mr. K.K. Trivedi, Secretary General, All India Flat Glass Manufacturers Association (AIFGMA), Delhi 29. Mr. Kiran A. Kadam, Retd Chief Fire Officer, Mumbai Fire Brigade, Mumbai 30. Mr. Kunwar Narayan, Chief Operating Officer, AIS Glass Solutions Ltd., Delhi 31. Dr. Leon Jacob, Jacob and Associates Pty. Ltd., Australia 32. Mr. L. Mahesh, AGM -Planning, Skyline Builders, Cochin 33. Mr. L. Venkatesh, Architect, C.R Narayanan Rao Architects and Engineers, Chennai 34. Mr. Manjunatha Prasad, GM (Projects), Brigade Gateway, Bangalore 35. Mr. Mayank K. Tilak, Superintending Engineer (TAS)/CSQ., Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Delhi 36. Ms. Meeta Zaveri, Director, Gras Impex Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai 37. Mr. Nalin Sharma, Architect (Ex), Airports Authority of India (AAI), Delhi 38. Mr. Naren Kumar, Manager - Institutional Sales, Saint Gobain Ltd., Chennai 39. Mr. Naveen Keswani, Managing Director, Aluplex India Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai 40. Mr. N. Gopinath, National Sales Manager, 3M India Ltd., Banglore 41. Mr. N. G. Rao, National Head, Gujarat Guardian Ltd., Delhi 42. Mr. Nilabh Nagar, Architect, Architect Hafeez Contractors, Mumbai 43. Mr. Nimish Patel, Architect, Abhikram, Ahmedabad 44. Mr. Paresh Misra, HOD - Architectural Division, Gujarat Guardian Ltd., Delhi 45. Mr. P. Ganesh, Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer, Glass & Glazing Systems (P) Ltd., Kerala 46. Ms. Pallabi Chandra Sarkar, Director Planning, Archimedes India Consultants Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 47. Mr. Phil Murray, Technical Services Manager, CP Films Middle East, Africa, India 48. Mr. Phillip Davies, Architectural Director, Asia Pacific, Dupont Australia, China 49. Mr. Prashant Yadav, Architect, SP Fabricators Pvt. Ltd., Banglore 50. Mr. Raj Kapoor, Architect, Department of Architecture, Public Works Department (B&R), Haryana 51. Mr. R. K. Gandhi, Chief Engineer, Public Works Department (B&R), Haryana 52. Mr. R. Raj Dilip, Sr. Architect, Natraj and Venkat, Chennai

53. Mr. R. Subramanian, Director (Operations), Sejal Architectural Glass Ltd., Mumbai 54. Mr. Sandeep Chowdhry, Managing Partner, Al Karma, Delhi 55. Mr. Sandeep Gaiwal, Assistant Engineer, Building Proposal Department of M.C.G.M., Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 56. Mr. Sandeep Kashyap, Executive Director, GlasNovations, New Delhi 57. Mr. Sanjeev Oberoi, Institutional Glass Group, Delhi 58. Mr. S. Balakrishna, Additional Chief City Planner, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Hyderabad 59 Mr. S.C. Bhatia, ADG, Architecture (Retd.), Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Delhi 60. Mr. S. C. Marwah, VP, Indo Alusys Industries Ltd., Delhi 61. Mr. Sharanjit Singh, Managing Director, GSC Toughened Glass Pvt. Ltd., Greater Noida 62. Mr. Sthaladipti Saha, Deputy Design Head, Larsen & Toubro Limited | ECC Division, Gurgaon 63. Mr. Srinivas Sapher, Sales Manager, Gujarat Guardian Limited, Delhi 64. Prof. Subir Saha, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 65. Mr. Sudhir Kumar, Addl. Chief Executive Officer, Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority, Uttar Pradesh 66. Mr. Suhel, Managing Director, FG Glass, Mumbai 67. Mr. Syed Muzaffir Hussain, Director House Numbering Cell and Chief City Planner, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Hyderabad 68. Mr. Tarun Motta, Secretary, Practising Engineers, Architects and Town Planner Association, Mumbai 69. Mr. V. B. Sud, Business Manager, Solutia Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd., Delhi 70. Mr. V. D. Deewan, Chief Architect, Delhi Development Authority (DDA), Delhi 71. Mr. Vijay Dahiya, Architect, Morphogenesis Architect Studio, Delhi 72. Mr. Vivek Dubey, Marketing Head, Gold Plus Toughened Glass Limited, Delhi 73. Mr. V. K. Rustogi, General Manager - RE, National Buildings Construction Corporation Ltd. (NBCC), Delhi 74. Mr. Vinod Tandon, Secretary, Glass Processors Forum, Delhi 75. Mr. Vivek Sabherwal, Architect, Interior India, Delhi 76. Mr. Yogesh Dutt, Director, Impact Safety Glass Works Private Limited, Bangalore

LIST OF SPECIAL INVITEES TO STEERING COMMITTEE MEETINGS

During four Steering Committee meetings organized two in Delhi, and one each in Mumbai and Bangalore, following profesionals participated as special invitees:

1. 2.

Mr. A. C. Kadir Velu, Consulting Engineer, Bangalore Mr. Ajit Chnadrashekharan, Manager - Institutional Sales, Saint Gobain Glass, Bangalore

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17. 18. 19.

20. 21.

22. 23.

24.

25. 26.

27. 28. 29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Mr. Bharat Gawde, Officer Purchase, Kalpataru Properties Private Limited, Mumbai Mr. Brijesh Kumar, Sr. Manager, Design, Staralubuild Pvt Ltd, Gurgaon Mr. Gaurav Tyagi, Director, Shiv Shakti Float Glass Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore Mr. Giriyappa, Proprietor, Giriyappa and Associates, Bangalore Mr. G. Naga Varma, AGM - Marketing, HNG Glass Containers Ltd. Mumbai Mr. Jaubilant C., Architect, Saint Gobain Glass, Bangalore Mr. Javed Anwar, Managing Director, Milestone, Bangalore Mr. K R. Singh, Branch Manager, GSC Toughened Glass Private Limited, Bangalore Mr. Madan Lal, Director, Mahaveer Safety Glass, Chennai Ms. Manisha Thakur, Sr. Engineer - Projects, Oberoi Constructions, Mumbai Mr. Manoj Chandel, Area Sales Manager, Garware Polyster Limited, Delhi Mr. Motta Tarun, Joint Secretary, Practising Engineers and Architecture Town Planner Association (PEATA), Mumbai Mr. Nanda Kumar, Commercial Department, S.P. Fabricators, Mumbai Mr. Nainish B Sanghani, EI Dupont India Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon Mr. Neeraj Mathur, Regional Manager, FG Glass, Mumbai Mr. Pankaj Keswani, Managing Director, Alufit, Bangalore Mr. Pradeep Ramesh, Engineer, A. N. Prakash and Consultants, Mumbai Mr. Praveen, EDM (South), S. P. Fabricators, Mumbai Mr. Prem, Sr. Vice President, Zak Trade Fairs and Exhibition, Mumbai Mr. Raj Gopal, Architect, Sundaram Architects, Bangalore Mr. Ravindra Mudugu, Assistant Manager - Projects, Oberoi Constructions, Mumbai Mr. Satya Kiran, Sr. Architect, Archimedes India Consultants Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi Ms. Sheetal Jain, Sales Manager, Sun Control Systems, Delhi Mr. Sourabh Mathur, Sr. Manager, Business Operations, Sky Frames, Delhi Mr. Srinivasan Desikachari, Architect, CREDAI, Bangalore Mr. Susanta, Engineer, Natraj and Venkat, Bangalore Mr. Sushil Padwal, Officer Purchase, Kalpataru Properties Private Limited, Mumbai Mr. T. Ravindran, Director, Instruct, Bangalore Mr. Uttaran B. Ray, Director and Architect, Impact Safety Design Mr. Vasim Sayed, Manager North, S. P. Fabricators, Mumbai Mr. Vijay G., Assistant Technical Manager, 3M India Limited, Bangalore Mr. Vineet Gupta, Territory Head, Gujarat Guardian Limited, Bangalore Mr. Vivek Kulkarni, Assistant Manager - Projects, Oberoi Constructions, Mumbai

31

Guidelines on use of Glass in Buildings - Human Safety

LIST OF EXPERT COMMITTEE MEMBERS 1. Sh. P. B. Vijay Former Director General, Central PWD

Chairman

2. Sh. D. S. Sachdev Director General, Central PWD

3. Sh. Mayank K. Tilak S.E.(TAS), Central PWD

4. Sh. P. Krishnan Former Director General, Central PWD

5. Sh. B. S. Duggal Former Director General, Central PWD

6. Sh. P. S. Chadha Former Additional Director General, Central PWD Consultant, Indian Building Congress 7. Sh. Balbir Verma Former President, Indian Institute of Architecture

8. Sh. Subhash Kapoor Former Additional Director General, Central PWD Consulting Engineers Association of India 9. Sh. Subhash Mehrotra Consulting Engineers Association of India

10. Sh. Deepak Gahlowt, Architect Convener, Confederation of Construction Products & Services

11. Sh. K. K. Mutreja Former E-in-C, NDMC & Additional Director General, Central PWD Adviser, CCPS 12. Sh. Shashi Kant Former Dy. Adviser, Planning Commission Adviser, CCPS 13. Sh. Sharanjit Singh Managing Director GSC Toughened Glass Pvt Ltd 14. Sh. Kunwar Narayan Chief Operation Officer AIS Glass Solutions Ltd

15. Sh. Anand Jain Head - Design & Commercial Structural Glass Solution Saint Gobain Glass India Ltd.

32

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