Self-Management and Leadership

February 13, 2018 | Author: newfut | Category: Self Awareness, Emotional Intelligence, Leadership & Mentoring, Leadership, Norm (Social)
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Self-Management and Leadership Development

NEW HORIZONS IN MANAGEMENT Series Editor: Cary L. Cooper, CBE, Distinguished Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health, Lancaster University, UK. This important series makes a significant contribution to the development of management thought. This field has expanded dramatically in recent years and the series provides an invaluable forum for the publication of high quality work in management science, human resource management, organizational behaviour, marketing, management information systems, operations management, business ethics, strategic management and international management. The main emphasis of the series is on the development and application of new original ideas. International in its approach, it will include some of the best theoretical and empirical work from both well-established researchers and the new generation of scholars. Titles in the series include: Women in Leadership and Management Edited by Duncan McTavish and Karen Miller Appreciative Inquiry and Knowledge Management A Social Constructionist Perspective Tojo Thatchenkery and Dilpreet Chowdhry Research Companion to the Dysfunctional Workplace Management Challenges and Symptoms Edited by Janice Langan-Fox, Cary L. Cooper and Richard J. Klimoski Research Companion to Emotion in Organizations Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy and Cary L. Cooper International Terrorism and Threats to Security Managerial and Organizational Challenges Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper Women on Corporate Boards of Directors International Research and Practice Edited by Susan Vinnicombe, Val Singh, Ronald J. Burke, Diana Bilimoria and Morten Huse Handbook of Managerial Behavior and Occupational Health Edited by Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou, Cary L. Cooper, George P. Chrousos, Charles D. Spielberger and Michael William Eysenck Workplace Psychological Health Current Research and Practice Paula Brough, Michael O’Driscoll, Thomas Kalliath, Cary L. Cooper and Steven A.Y. Poelmans Research Companion to Corruption in Organizations Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper Self-Management and Leadership Development Edited by Mitchell G. Rothstein and Ronald J. Burke

Self-Management and Leadership Development Edited by

Mitchell G. Rothstein Director and Professor, Aubrey Dan Program in Management and Organizational Studies, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Ronald J. Burke Professor of Organizational Behavior, Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada

NEW HORIZONS IN MANAGEMENT

Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK • Northampton, MA, USA

© Mitchell G. Rothstein and Ronald J. Burke 2010 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical or photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing Limited The Lypiatts 15 Lansdown Road Cheltenham Glos GL50 2JA UK Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. William Pratt House 9 Dewey Court Northampton Massachusetts 01060 USA

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Control Number: 2009940648

ISBN 978 1 84844 323 5

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Printed and bound by MPG Books Group, UK

Contents List of contributors Acknowledgments

vii ix

Self-assessment and leadership development: an overview Mitchell G. Rothstein and Ronald J. Burke PART I

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SELF-AWARENESS AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

The role of the individual in self-assessment for leadership development Allan H. Church and Christopher T. Rotolo

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Inspiring the development of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in managers Richard E. Boyatzis, Tony Lingham and Angela Passarelli

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Problems in managing the self-assessment process for leaders-to-be James G.S. Clawson

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Taking charge: discovering the magic in your psychological assessment Sandra L. Davis

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Assessing leadership and the leadership gap Jean Brittain Leslie and Ruohong Wei

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Emotional intelligence and interpersonal competencies Ronald E. Riggio

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How to matter Stewart Emery

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PART II

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THE SELF-MANAGEMENT OF COMMON LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES

Managing your leadership career in hard times John Blenkinsopp, Yehuda Baruch and Ruth Winden v

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Contents

Personal goals for self-directed leaders: traditional and new perspectives Thomas S. Bateman Self-directed work teams: best practices for leadership development Wendy L. Bedwell, Marissa L. Shuffler, Jessica L. Wildman and Eduardo Salas Work motivations, job behaviors and flourishing in work and life Ronald J. Burke

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Enlisting others in your development as a leader Dawn E. Chandler and Kathy E. Kram

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Resilience and leadership: the self-management of failure Gillian A. King and Mitchell G. Rothstein

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The role of developmental social networks in effective leader self-learning processes Krista Langkamer Ratwani, Stephen J. Zaccaro, Sena Garven and David S. Geller

PART III

395

SELF-MANAGEMENT AND UNIQUE LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES

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Self-assessment and self-development of global leaders Paula Caligiuri and Ruchi Sinha

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Learning from life experiences: a study of female academic leaders in Australia Linley Lord and Susan Vinnicombe

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447

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Preparing next generation business leaders Philip Mirvis, Kevin Thompson and Chris Marquis

464

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And leadership development for all Lyndon Rego, David G. Altman and Steadman D. Harrison III

487

Index

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Contributors David G. Altman, Center for Creative Leadership, USA Yehuda Baruch, University of East Anglia, UK Thomas S. Bateman, University of Virginia, USA Wendy L. Bedwell, University of Central Florida, USA John Blenkinsopp, Teesside University, UK Richard E. Boyatzis, Case Western Reserve University, USA Ronald J. Burke, York University, Canada Paula Caligiuri, Rutgers University, USA Dawn E. Chandler, California Polytechnic State University, USA Allan H. Church, PepsiCo Inc., USA James G.S. Clawson, University of Virginia, USA Sandra L. Davis, MDA Leadership Consulting, USA Stewart Emery, Consultant, USA Sena Garven, US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, USA David S. Geller, George Mason University, USA Steadman D. Harrison III, Center for Creative Leadership, USA Gillian A. King, Bloorview Research Institute, Canada Kathy E. Kram, Boston University, USA Krista Langkamer Ratwani, Aptima Inc., USA Jean Brittain Leslie, Center for Creative Leadership, USA Tony Lingham, Case Western Reserve University, USA Linley Lord, Curtin University of Technology, Australia Chris Marquis, Harvard Business School, USA vii

viii

Contributors

Philip Mirvis, Center for Corporate Citizenship, USA Angela Passarelli, Case Western Reserve University, USA Lyndon Rego, Center for Creative Leadership, USA Ronald E. Riggio, Claremont McKenna College, USA Mitchell G. Rothstein, University of Western Ontario, Canada Christopher T. Rotolo, PepsiCo Inc., USA Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida, USA Marissa L. Shuffler, University of Central Florida, USA Ruchi Sinha, Rutgers University, USA Kevin Thompson, IBM, USA Susan Vinnicombe, Cranfield University, UK Ruohong Wei, Center for Creative Leadership, Singapore Jessica L. Wildman, University of Central Florida, USA Ruth Winden, Careers Enhanced Ltd., UK Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, USA

Acknowledgments My heartfelt thanks to Ron for many years of mentorship, advice and friendship, including your invaluable guidance throughout this project. To our contributors, thanks so much for sharing our vision for the book. The Aubrey Dan Program in Management and Organizational Studies at the University of Western Ontario supported the preparation of this work. And thanks to Gillian for everything you have done. Mitchell G. Rothstein London, Canada I have known and worked with Mitch for almost 20 years. Thanks Mitch for spearheading this initiative. I am also grateful to our contributors for their excellent work. York University contributed to the preparation of my chapters. And finally, thanks to our friends at Edward Elgar for supporting our efforts at every turn in a highly professional and supportive way. Ronald J. Burke Toronto, Canada A very special thanks goes to our assistant, Linda K. Smith, for her diligence and hard work in editing and helping to produce this volume.

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Self-assessment and leadership development: an overview Mitchell G. Rothstein and Ronald J. Burke This volume fills what we see as a critical gap in the research and writing on leadership and leadership development. The topic of leadership is, arguably, the subject of more research and writing than any other topic in the management literature. A search of the Amazon.com data base reveals that there are currently over 8500 books in print with leadership in the title and over 19 800 books listed on the topic of leadership. In addition, there are hundreds of research articles on leadership published in academic journals. Despite this vast literature, our understanding of leadership and how to develop leaders is still falling short. For example, evidence suggests that a shortage of effective leaders exists (Michaels et al, 2001), that organizations are not doing a satisfactory job at developing future leaders (Fulmer and Conger, 2004), and that between 50 to 75 per cent of individuals in leadership positions are underperforming (Hogan and Hogan, 2001), an estimate borne out by the tenure of individuals holding senior level leadership positions, which has steadily fallen over the past two decades (Burke, 2006; Burke and Cooper, 2006). Leadership research has been ongoing for decades. Although this research has accumulated a body of knowledge informing us of what leaders do (for example, Yukl, 1998), this work has not generally been useful in contributing to our understanding of how leaders develop. There are several possible explanations for this. First, a considerable amount of this research has focused on what makes leaders successful, in the sense of what they accomplished, rather than on how they developed the expertise to contribute to the success of the work units they lead. Second, organizations have tolerated bad leadership and bad leaders. There was a period during which larger environmental factors (for example, lack of competition, trade barriers, proprietary technology) contributed to making many organizations successful even though their leaders were falling short. In addition, until recently, followers rarely complained about failing leadership (Kellerman, 2004). Third, most research has had a positive and optimistic bias, assuming that leaders were generally successful by virtue 1

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of holding leadership positions. Efforts were then made to identify factors associated with their successes. Relatively little research focused on leadership shortcomings, failures or derailments, or the ‘dark side’ of leadership, with some notable exceptions (for example, Van Velsor and Leslie, 1995). The character and behavioral flaws that limited effectiveness have not received adequate attention until very recently. Fourth, organizational efforts to develop leadership talents have been hit and miss (Fulmer and Conger, 2004). Finally, MBA-level courses that address leadership have been criticized as typically too conceptual and taught by individuals who themselves had never been leaders or demonstrated leadership skills (Mintzberg, 2004). Despite these many problems in the broad-based leadership literature and common organizational leadership development practices, the theoretical and research-based approaches to the study of leadership have in fact produced a body of knowledge on leadership, albeit often contradictory. In a systematic and thorough review of this literature, Yukl (1998) concludes that even though leadership has been studied with very different approaches, reaching in some cases quite different conclusions, nevertheless, we do know a good deal about what leaders actually do. What we know considerably less about, however, is how leaders got there, what developmental paths led them to their positions of leadership, what experiences and achievements were critical to their development, and what role they themselves took to manage their own development. Although some work has been done to investigate and document organizational practices designed to develop leaders, there is very little work published that systematically focuses on the instrumental role required by leaders to manage their own development. This is the subject of the current volume. Ironically, not only are individuals not faring well in their leadership roles and organizations are not doing a good job of developing their leadership talent, there is also increasing evidence that many leadership aspirants and those already holding leadership positions are dissatisfied and frustrated (Friedman, 2008a; 2008b; Nash and Stevenson, 2004a; 2004b). Although some of this dissatisfaction clearly must be related to the stress of leading in the turbulent times in which we live (Burke and Cooper, 2004), poor selection, promotion and development practices by organizations must also be considered as major factors contributing to poor leadership performance and leaders who are unhappy in their roles. The authors who have contributed to this volume, however, share in the belief that organizations are not solely to blame for poor leadership development practices, and that the responsibility needs to shift more to aspiring leaders to be instrumental in their own development. The need for effective leaders grows unabated. For example, one of

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the biggest challenges faced by business today is coping with rapid and continuous change in markets and competition due to globalization and technological innovations. Many authors, such as Kotter (1996), have highlighted the critical role of leadership in managing these change issues. The sheer volume of research and writing on the subject of leadership underscores the importance of this topic and the value put on increasing our understanding of leadership effectiveness by academics, organizations, and individuals aspiring to be leaders. The need to understand how leaders develop, therefore, remains a subject of critical interest in the business and management literature. In response to this need, business schools around the world have strengthened their focus on leadership development in both degree programs and executive education programs. In addition to traditional knowledge-based curricula and strategic analysis and decision making, business education has increasingly emphasized leadership skill development. Texts, such as that authored by Whetten and Cameron (1998), that provide skill practice guidelines and exercises have been very popular. Yet there continues to be criticism of business school curricula, in particular with regard to the poor preparation of graduates for assuming leadership roles. In addition, we are constantly made aware of the failures of leaders through research and the popular press. Whether through the pioneering work of the Center for Creative Leadership (for example, Van Velsor and Leslie, 1995) on the factors that lead to the derailment of leaders’ careers, or through the frequent news reports of unethical behavior and poor performance of business leaders, it has been made clear that leaders still fail at a rather alarming rate. Moreover, as the population ages and more people retire, the need for effective leadership throughout all levels of an organization will increase what has been termed the ‘war for talent’ (Michaels et al., 2001). It seems to us, therefore, that despite the immense literature on leadership, and all the efforts to develop leaders by organizations and business schools, the critical need for more effective leaders requires continuing efforts to determine the critical factors that contribute to leadership development. The present volume addresses this need by taking a perspective that has received little systematic attention by researchers and authors on leadership. Although several books have been published on the topic of leadership development, including an excellent volume produced by the Center for Creative Leadership (McCauley and Van Velsor, 2004), all of the books we are aware of are almost exclusively focused on leadership development practices from the perspective of organizations, training institutions and managers in their role of developing their subordinates. What is clearly missing in this body of work is the important role of

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the individual in self-managing his/her own development as an aspiring leader. What are the responsibilities and requirements of aspiring leaders to influence and manage their own development process? How does the critical role of self-awareness impact the self-management process? How does the individual cope with the multitude of challenges faced during the development process? What are the ways and means open to individuals interested in self-managing their own leadership development? What does this self-management process contribute to our understanding of leadership generally, as well as our understanding of how leadership develops most effectively? These and other related questions are critical for individuals to understand in order that they may assume responsibility and take an instrumental role in their own development as a leader. The need for individuals to take direct personal responsibility for their development has never been greater. Increasingly, as organizations downsize, outsource, and cut costs to deal with fierce competition, globalization, and demands from shareholders to maintain profits, there is little commitment given to leadership development activities at the organizational level. Organizations are no longer willing to commit resources to leadership development because of other short-term needs and the belief that if individuals want to develop, it is up to them to figure out how to do it (Moses, 1997).

OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THIS VOLUME The goal of this volume is to bring together contributions from leading scholars and practitioners in the leadership development field in a collection that will document current research and practice regarding the self-management of leadership development. Although this topic has been broached by a number of authors previously, it has typically been on an ad hoc basis and most often discussed as tangential to some other topic. For example, there is considerable literature on the critical role of mentors and networks in the career development of leaders, but relatively little discussion of how individuals should manage these important relationships. Similarly, a great deal of research has been conducted on the value of performance feedback as well as how to evaluate performance and provide appropriate personal feedback (cf. Murphy and Cleveland, 1995), but relatively little has been written on how an individual can effectively manage the process of obtaining good feedback and applying it to his/her own leadership development. In general, the role of assessment of leadership skills, values and personality is well recognized at the organizational level to identify and develop leadership talent, but the responsibility of

An overview

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an individual to engage in self-assessment and develop self-awareness has received very little attention. This volume is the first comprehensive treatment of what is known from research and best practice on the self-management of leadership development. Our view of leadership development in this volume is deliberately broad and integrated with consideration of challenges faced in the course of adult development. We share the views of Friedman (2008a; 2008b) and Nash and Stevenson (2004a; 2004b) that individuals flourish (or not) in both work and personal life domains and that experiences in one domain are influenced by and in turn influence experiences in most other domains. Friedman’s (2008a; 2008b) concept of ‘total leadership development’ emphasizes becoming successful in all domains of one’s life: private life, family, work and community. According to Friedman, individuals need to value ‘winning’ in all these domains rather than believing that trade-offs are necessary in order to succeed in the work domain. Further, individuals who fail to meet their leadership potential at work often do so because they are falling short in other domains of their life. Similarly, Nash and Stevenson (2004a; 2004b) found in their research that successful leaders integrated four spheres of their lives: happiness (satisfaction with one’s life), achievement (accomplishments that compare favorably with those of others), significance (having a positive impact on people you care about), and legacy (helping others achieve their success). Leaders in the Nash and Stevenson study defined success as obtaining ‘just enough’ in each of the four spheres, rather than maximizing all four or any one of the spheres. Consistent with Friedman, Nash and Stevenson argue that when leaders make trade-offs across these spheres it detracts from their overall feelings of success. The self-management of leadership development must, therefore, attend to and engage activity in all these domains or spheres of life to achieve one’s leadership potential.

THE FOUNDATION OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND SELF-AWARENESS We believe there is a growing consensus among scholars of leadership that self-awareness is the foundation of leadership development and therefore the core of self-management efforts. Self-awareness provides a basis for introspection, choice, priority setting, change and development. Numerous leadership researchers and authors have discussed the critical element of self-awareness in leadership performance. Drucker (1999) advises that success as a leader comes to those who know themselves – their strengths,

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their values, and how they best perform. Tichy (1997) refers to a leader’s ability to tell ‘who I am’ stories as essential to their effectiveness. Kotter (1996) discusses the importance of honest and humble self-reflection as one of the critical mental habits of lifelong learning as a leader. The first leadership principle in Useem’s The Leadership Moment (1998) is know yourself. Whetten and Cameron’s (1998) textbook, widely used for leadership development in MBA programs, titled Developing Management Skills, provides self-assessment exercises in almost every chapter, giving the reader an opportunity to evaluate their current skills and approaches to various leadership challenges (for example, conflict management). These authors, and others, are all emphasizing self-awareness as an essential component of leadership effectiveness. The critical issue of how self-awareness is achieved is, however, most often not articulated. Attempts to increase self-awareness to guide leadership development are not new. An underlying assumption of many organizationally driven assessment and evaluation systems is that the data derived from these systems will enhance self-awareness and thereby provide focus and motivation to improve in those areas identified as weaknesses. Performance appraisal systems, 360-degree feedback, assessment centers, psychological assessments, formal mentoring, and executive coaching all provide, with various degrees of accuracy and value, information to aspiring leaders on their performance and development needs (Fulmer and Conger, 2004). Some of these systems provide very unique functions in enhancing self-awareness: 360-degree feedback systems broaden the range of information available to leaders to help them see themselves as others see them; performance appraisals and assessment centers tend to focus on skills and performance areas that need immediate improvement or are necessary for promotion; mentoring and executive coaching typically emphasize advice and support regarding behavior and attitude change. There is no question that all of these approaches to increasing self-awareness and thereby performance, if done well, provide value to leadership development. Unfortunately, however, cost controls and short-term goals drive today’s organizations, and individuals are expected to take control of their own leadership development (Moses, 1997). Moreover, assessment provided by organizational systems must focus on what the organization needs, which may or may not be congruent with the development goals of an individual. The individual aspiring leader must take ownership of the assessment process and use the resulting information and insight to meet his/her own needs and development goals. The individual must take direct personal responsibility for his/her own development because no one else will, or is able to, manage the process to achieve the goals the individual truly wants. Self-assessment, therefore, fills a critical need in the leadership development process.

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Self-assessment is the means by which self-awareness is achieved, and both the process of self-assessment and the resulting increase in selfawareness are central to the themes of self-management and leadership development in the current volume. Chapter authors repeatedly reinforce these themes throughout the volume, arguing for the contribution of selfawareness to leadership effectiveness and development, and providing specific advice and techniques for self-assessment. For the purposes of this volume, our operational definition of self-assessment and its relationship to leadership development is as follows: self-assessment involves the use of self-knowledge and introspection in a structured and guided format, the generation of information and data about oneself, and the use of this data to enrich understanding of important personal issues (for example, job/ career/life satisfaction; defining success; identifying strengths, shortcomings, and areas of potential concern) in order to commit to developmental initiatives that will enrich one’s work, self, family and community.

APPROACHES TO SELF-ASSESSMENT IN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT As discussed previously, numerous researchers and authors have promoted the value of self-awareness in leadership effectiveness, although for the most part these authors have provided little, if any, detailed advice on conducting a self-assessment process. However, there are a few examples of specific self-assessment techniques that have been published previously, and these are noteworthy. One of the earliest and most thorough approaches to self-assessment was published by Clawson et al., (1992). These authors primarily focused on applications to career development and provided a program rich in detail and with interpretive guidelines intended to assist individuals in making appropriate job and career choices. Although the objectives of the self-assessment process these authors recommended were specifically focused on career development, Clawson et al. provided an excellent model of how self-assessment should be approached, and many of their exercises and techniques could be easily adapted to the purpose of leadership development. There are several other examples of previously published self-assessment methods that have focused more specifically on leadership development, although the rationale for these approaches is primarily based on promoting self-awareness as a critical leadership competency, rather than as a core component of a broader self-management program for leadership development, which is presented in the current volume. Nevertheless, these approaches to self-assessment complement the approaches and

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techniques recommended by authors in the current volume and are worthy of note for the interested reader. For example, previously we discussed Friedman’s (2008a; 2008b) perspective on ‘total leadership development’, which includes becoming successful in all domains of one’s life, not just the work domain. Friedman also developed a self-assessment program to facilitate the development of what he termed ‘Total Leadership’. The program begins with individuals assessing what is important to them, what they want, and what they can contribute to, now and in the future, in each of the four domains of life: private self, family, work and community. Past life events are considered to determine their impact on how individuals currently define who they are today, their chosen direction, their core values, and their leadership vision and aspirations. Discussions with key stakeholders in each domain of the individual’s life are also carried out to determine their expectations of the individual. This is followed by creating and enacting small ‘experiments’ to change behavior to better meet individual and stakeholder needs and expectations in each of the four domains. Continuous self-reflection is a key ingredient in this program, and individuals are encouraged to record their activities, thoughts and feelings during their experiments. Friedman studied hundreds of participants in his Total Leadership Program and reported improvements in their job satisfaction, relationships with both customers and co-workers, and job performance. Another approach to self-assessment, focusing on ‘strengths’, has been developed by individuals associated with the Gallup Organization (Buckingham, 2007; Buckingham and Clifton, 2001). Based on their research showing that only 17 per cent of the workforce report using all of their strengths on the job, and that those who do use their strengths report working in more productive teams with lower turnover and higher customer satisfaction, Buckingham and Clifton (2001) argue that individuals should focus more on their strengths to enhance performance rather than attempting to improve their weaknesses. In other words, they argue that focusing on what is working rather than what is broken is a better strategy for leadership development. Unfortunately, they find that most people still believe that fixing weaknesses is the best way to improve performance. To facilitate a greater commitment to focusing on strengths, Buckingham and Clifton (2001) developed an inventory of strengths related to leadership and managerial performance and obtained responses from a nationally represented sample of workers in the United States. Individuals taking the inventory are able to compare themselves against this normative sample and determine their own relative strengths and weaknesses. On the basis of this self-assessment, individuals are encouraged to strive to do things that play to their strengths and to avoid activities requiring their weaknesses.

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Another self-assessment methodology has been developed by Kaplan and his colleagues (Kaplan, 2006; Kaplan and Kaiser, 2006; 2009) to address what they regard as one of the significant challenges of leadership, the tendency to overreact or underreact to various situations, which results in a negative impact on their performance. According to Kaplan and Kaiser (2006), leaders bring certain ‘baggage’ with them to their leadership roles. This baggage creates sensitivities to circumstances such as fatigue, illness and stress, or feelings of vulnerability, threat, or inadequacy, all of which may help explain why they over- or underreact to various situations, which leads to poor performance. Kaplan (2006) has developed an approach to assess the extent to which a leader exhibits a variety of these reactions. Through self-assessment and feedback from others such as co-workers, leaders come to recognize their over- and underreactions, better understand their behavior, and learn more effective coping responses. We see therefore, from this discussion, that self-assessment has been recommended for leadership development by a number of authors previously, although not in the context of a broader approach to self-management as presented in the current volume. Nevertheless, these approaches reinforce the value of self-awareness as a core leadership competency and we recommend them as complementary to the methods presented in this text. Authors contributing to this volume address the broader issue of self-management as it applies to numerous responsibilities and challenges faced by leaders and aspiring leaders. Within each of these contributions, the importance of self-awareness as the foundation to self-management will be made clear, and many of our authors will, in addition, provide practical self-assessment tools that contribute to the self-management of leadership development with respect to the specific issue or challenge that is the focus of each chapter.

SELF-MANAGEMENT OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT: SOME UNIQUE CONTEXTS The principles and practices of self-management for leadership development discussed in this volume are for the most part focused on the mythical ‘average’ or typical leader or aspiring leader. We fully acknowledge that there are diverse groups of individuals and unique contexts in which leadership development will face challenges and require solutions that differ from those discussed here. Some of these unique contexts are touched on by our contributors, but the full extent of the diversity of issues cannot be adequately dealt with in this volume. Where possible, we

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refer the interested reader to some additional literature regarding several unique contexts in the following paragraphs. There is increasing evidence that women may bring slightly different skills and strengths to their managerial and professional jobs than men do. In addition, women face different work, family and career realities than men (Burke and Mattis, 2005; Barreto et al., 2009). As a consequence their career landscape is different (Mainiero and Sullivan, 2005; 2006). Readers interested in some aspects of the use of self-assessment for women and the unique nature of women’s careers would find useful information in Ruderman and Ohlott (2002), Vinnicombe and Bank (2003), and Eagly and Carli (2007). Differences in career stage will undoubtedly create differences in the role and value of self-assessment in the lives of mid-career men and women. These individuals have a lot more experience to process, more data to inform their self-assessments, more information on their successes and failures, and a different array of possibilities and choices than do women and men just beginning their careers. Self-assessment in mid-career can help individuals break out of unsatisfying routines. Managers often are in denial about their circumstances and feelings, and may believe that changing their job/career/organization would be disloyal and difficult, or that their investment in their current position to date makes it difficult to contemplate something different (Drummond and Chell, 2000). These beliefs and feelings can create a sense of being trapped that in turn creates a kind of ‘psychic prison’ of the individual’s own making. Engaging in self-assessment is an effective way to deal with these beliefs and feelings, and enables the individual to identify potential new opportunities that would be more rewarding. Korman and Korman (1980) studied mid-career issues and coined the term ‘career success and personal failure’ to capture a syndrome that afflicts managers that have the external trappings of career success (highlevel jobs, good salaries) but when pressed, admit feelings of estrangement from their work, organizations and families. This syndrome emerges in mid-life since some degree of career success is required, before these individuals start to become aware of aspects of decline (for example, health, goals that will not be reached, feelings of obsolescence). Korman and Korman (1980) identified four ‘cognitive realizations’ that serve as potential contributing factors to career success and personal failure: loss of affiliative satisfactions from work colleagues and family members; a sense of being controlled by external factors (one’s manager and organization, one’s family) in one’s work and career decision making; an appreciation that some things one had expected to happen would not; and a realization that many of the life and work goals that were pursued were

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contradictory (for example, meeting organizational demands and having time for family). Korman and Korman (1980) suggest that organizational programs supporting self-assessment, life and career planning, and career change would address the sources of this debilitating syndrome. Another unique context for leadership development that deserves brief mention is the situation in which models of leadership may vary, for example as a function of operating within a public sector or not-for-profit organization. Self-management strategies may vary in this context to some degree, although we are unable to explore this possibility in detail here. However, Rego and his colleagues discuss an innovative approach to leadership development with youth in the developing world in the current volume. Much more deserves to be said about self-management and leadership development in these unique contexts, and we hope that the current volume will encourage others to conduct research on this topic in these special circumstances.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK We believe that this book should be of interest to a wide variety of readers, including students of leadership, researchers interested in leadership development, and practitioners such as consultants, trainers, human resource professionals, and managers at all levels who are involved with leadership development. The primary focus of this book is, however, on the selfmanagement of leadership development, and therefore we hope that this volume will be especially useful to aspiring leaders. The contents of this collection will provide considerable ‘food for thought’ for all those who aspire to progress in leadership positions throughout their careers. Most importantly, the role of self-awareness in leadership development is reinforced repeatedly by the authors in this volume. Self-awareness provides aspiring leaders with essential knowledge on what they can do themselves to own and manage their development. It helps leaders understand what they need to change and how to integrate their development plans with their opportunities, as well as providing a basis for priority setting and choice of development activities. And perhaps more fundamentally, selfawareness enhances motivation to shift the responsibility for development to the individual leader, a shift that is critical to the long-term career success of all leaders (Useem, 2006). To obtain full value from this collection, we encourage readers who wish to take a more active role in their own leadership development to allow the material they encounter to stimulate their thinking about how to enhance their self-awareness. We encourage you to reflect on your experiences in

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various life roles including work, take stock of your current circumstances, consider reprioritizing some activities, and begin to set some concrete goals for development in one or more life domains. We also encourage you to think about your satisfaction and performance in various domains, as well as your own psychological and physical well-being. You might also find it helpful to solicit support from your spouse or partner, your co-workers, or a valued and trusted peer or mentor in your efforts. Numerous self-assessment instruments have been included in the various chapters, and in most cases scores from normative samples have been provided (for example, business students, managers, various professional groups). These scores are typically mean values, so a reader can see how they compare with the mean value of a particular normative group. A general rule of thumb when comparing scores with an appropriate normative group is to focus on ‘extreme’ scores, that is, those scores that are considerably higher or lower than the norm. Individuals with extreme scores, again assuming the normative comparison group is appropriate, should more likely expend their energy and resources developing these characteristics or behaviors, as the potential implications of these extreme scores in terms of future satisfaction and effectiveness may be profound. Once the characteristics or behaviors that you wish to change have been identified, action planning may begin. For example, the following simple process may be followed: 1.

2.

Identify five things you want to start doing more of, starting today (be specific). What actions will you undertake? How will you evaluate progress in your efforts? How will you know that you have been successful? What supports do you have in place that will help you in your efforts? Identify five things you want to stop doing or do less of, starting today (be specific). What actions will you undertake? How will you evaluate progress in your efforts? How will you know that you have been successful? What supports do you have in place that will help you in your efforts?

You may also wish to consult the goal-setting and action-planning recommendations of Buckingham (2007) regarding developing your strengths. Whichever method you choose, remember that although the past cannot be changed, the future can be managed. We believe that leaders and leadership play critical roles in the success of any society. The emphasis on self-awareness and self-assessment in leadership development will have a positive impact on the success of leaders and the effectiveness of their leadership development activities. As

An overview

13

this is borne out, we see value for individuals and their families, for their employing organizations, and for the wider society as a whole. Healthy individuals, healthy families, and healthy organizations all contribute to healthy communities.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CONTENTS OF THE CURRENT VOLUME Each chapter in this collection focuses on a unique aspect of selfmanagement as it relates to leadership development. These contributions are grouped into three broad categories: the role of self-awareness and self-assessment in leadership development, the contribution of selfmanagement to common leadership challenges, and unique challenges to self-management related to changes in the global environment of business. The first part of this volume brings additional perspective to the importance of self-awareness in leadership development. Chapters in this part focus on the critical role of self-assessment to achieve self-awareness, the importance of taking the responsibility to self-assess, and the need to take ownership of the process and data obtained from various sources of developmental feedback. Some general self-assessment techniques are provided, and the value of some specific types of data to leadership development is discussed. The unique perspective of this section is the focus on how the individual takes responsibility and manages these assessment methods, rather than how organizations use these methods. ●

Allan Church and Christopher Rotolo (Chapter 1) address the role of the individual learner in self-assessment and leadership development. They position their writing squarely in the organizational context incorporating their work with PepsiCo. They first identify three moderators of effective use of self-assessment and development: organizational culture, supporting tools and processes, and individual characteristics. Individual characteristics that are important include willingness to learn, openness to change, and motivation and ambition to advance. Church and Rotolo offer a typology of ‘leader learners’ based on their organizational practice. A five-phase individual feedback, development and change model is proposed with detailed treatment of the role of the individual learner in the process. Questions are posed for the reader at each stage and helpful responses are identified. In addition, each stage is fleshed out with individual and organizational examples. They also

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identify individual obstacles to change and offer suggestions on how these might be addressed. Richard Boyatzis, Tony Lingham and Angela Passarelli (Chapter 2) address the questions regarding what competencies make leaders effective and how individuals can be inspired to develop them. Outstanding leaders display cognitive, emotional and social intelligences. The authors use Intentional Change Theory (ICT) to capture the key elements and processes that support sustained and desired changes in behaviors, thoughts, feelings and perceptions. Initial phases of ICT involve self-assessment of real and desired selves. Using data from 22 years of longitudinal assessment, they convincingly show that MBAs can develop competencies associated with effective leadership and management. James Clawson (Chapter 3) asserts, like many of the authors in this volume, that leaders must continuously learn, grow and adapt if they are to remain successful, including learning about themselves. The problem Clawson focuses on in this chapter is that so many leaders find it difficult to self-assess and then deal effectively with the findings. This chapter provides an understanding of why leaders do not engage in self-assessment and offers some very positive recommendations on how leaders should overcome this reluctance to engage in a critical component of their development and success. The reluctance to self-assess and use this information effectively to develop stems from a variety of factors including a failure to understand its importance and value (in some cases this is open distain), an assumption among some that they know all there is to know about themselves already, an inability and/or lack of concern for understanding how their behavior and motives affect others, a belief and drive to do whatever they have to regardless of personal consequences, and a number of other reasons detailed in this chapter. Clawson recommends a variety of ways for leaders to break out of their reluctance to develop better self-awareness such as utilizing 360 feedback to help them see how others see them, developing listening skills, relying less on the power of their positions and more on understanding, and a variety of other helpful suggestions. Sandra Davis (Chapter 4) examines one of the most important sources of information potentially available to increase selfawareness, a psychological assessment. Davis begins by describing some common reactions to this source of information by leaders and emerging leaders – they avoid it, minimize its usefulness, and/ or just plain ignore it. But Davis provides a convincing rationale for the value of these data to leadership development, especially

An overview





15

if leaders actively engage this information to inform their development activity. To this end, a detailed, step-by-step process is described for how to work effectively with a psychologist to get the most out of feedback from the assessment and use it to guide leadership development. Davis emphasizes the importance of being an active participant in the feedback process. This means engaging the psychologist in a dialogue concerning the feedback, asking questions, and challenging interpretations, not defensively, but in the spirit of gaining clarity. Common assessment tools are then described including what the data means (and does not mean) and how to approach the feedback constructively. Sample questions are provided for probing the meaning of the data with the psychologist. Worksheets are also provided for guiding the process of engaging other stakeholders (boss, peers, direct reports) in the leader’s development. Jean Leslie and Ruohong Wei, from the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL), examine the ‘leadership gap’ – the shortfall between current and forecasted leadership capacity (Chapter 5). Using an extensive data base from CCL, they first provide evidence for the leadership gap between present skills of leaders and what they report needing to be more effective now and in the future. The authors argue that these data support an overwhelming need for leadership development. They then focus on the individual and their responsibility for understanding what they need to learn and what they need to do to close their own leadership gaps. An exercise, based on the rich history of CCL leadership research, is provided for readers to selfassess their development needs. Leslie and Wei complete their chapter by providing very specific and helpful recommendations, again based on CCL research, on strategies individuals can employ to close their own leadership gap and manage their own development. The self-development of emotional intelligence (EQ) and its contribution to leadership development is the topic discussed in Chapter 6 by Ronald Riggio. He begins by distinguishing between the two models of EQ, the abilities model and the mixed model. This is an important distinction, as the trait component of the mixed model will be more difficult to self-manage. Riggio provides an excellent summary of the controversies in EQ research, the conceptual problems, and the measurement challenges, but despite these difficulties, he makes a good case for the importance of EQ to leadership. Riggio then summarizes the best practices in self-development of EQ and leadership competencies, and he briefly reviews published resources available for use in self-development.

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Self-management and leadership development ●

Stewart Emery (Chapter 7) tackles some deep soul-searching leadership questions – do you matter? Are you, as an individual, a positive force in other people’s lives? From these, additional questions follow: who are you? What do you provide? Why does it matter? What are your core values? What do you bring to others? Each of these questions begins with a journey of self-assessment leading to self-awareness. Emery then encourages an exploration of ‘how’ to matter, using actual people as examples. Learning what you do emerges as a central theme here. Individuals can grow to be great by doing work they believe is great, that is, by loving what they do. Deliberate practice is a vital step on this path. Goal-setting and feedback are crucial. He concludes with some questions supportive of deliberate practice. Emery extends the use of self-assessment and self-awareness to some very personal issues that are critical for leaders to consider.

The second part of the book focuses on the contribution of a selfmanagement perspective to numerous challenges faced by leaders during the course of their development and careers. Topics include personal goalsetting, managing your career, managing team performance, resilience, stress and work addiction, and working constructively with mentors and networks. Again, the emphasis here is not the organizational or managerial perspective on how to manage these problems; rather, our contributors focus on how individuals take personal responsibility to manage through these critical leadership issues, how self-reflection and self-awareness aids in the response to these challenges, and how these experiences contribute to leadership development. ●



John Blenkinsopp, Yehuda Baruch and Ruth Winden (Chapter 8) consider career management in times of economic downturn. The career landscape has changed over the past two decades in significant ways. While individuals have a responsibility for their careers, a surprisingly large number of managers still fail to exercise it. Organizational support for careers is also important, and these authors review a number of organizational career practices including assessment, training and development, and varied experiences. Their use of individual case examples captures current career and organizational realities and illustrates how meshing self-knowledge and organizational needs can foster career and leadership development. Thomas S. Bateman (Chapter 9) emphasizes goals and feedback in his vision of Self-Directed Leadership (SDL). SDL involves the setting of specific goals. He identifies a variety of personal goals

An overview







17

that support leadership development. SDL requires making choices, setting specific goals, taking action, and minimizing self-sabotage. Prominent leadership theories are used to identify potential goals that SDL might pursue. Proactive behavior, including both selfassessment and the assessment of others, is central to success in development and the managerial role. He concludes with tangible suggestions regarding moving goals into action. Wendy Bedwell, Marissa Shuffler, Jessica Wildman and Eduardo Salas (Chapter 10) using a competency-based approach to learning, propose that work teams provided a rich context for self-assessment and leadership development, that is, individuals are provided with opportunities to learn within the context of work teams. Bedwell et al. begin with a review of self-directed work teams (SDWTs) and leadership functions. Their discussion illustrates how leadership functions and team member functions overlap, how leadership development within SDWTs emphasizes self-management, and how self-management is facilitated by self-observation. Best practices are described that allow emerging leaders to take charge of their learning and practice effective leadership skills as well as improving the effectiveness of their SDWT, phases of team development, and team competencies. These best practices include self-criticism, seeking feedback, and providing feedback to others. These processes reinforce the themes seen throughout the chapters in this collection, but they are positioned here in a work team context. Ronald Burke (Chapter 11) examines the issue of flourishing in leadership and life generally. He provides a practical guide on the self-assessment of factors related to flourishing to determine those that may be risks for the developing leader and that need to be changed to increase leadership and life effectiveness. Specifically, 12 factors that contribute to our understanding of why leaders work so hard are discussed in detail including the consequences (positive and negative) of these different sources of motivation. Available theory and research on each factor is reviewed and a self-assessment exercise is provided in which readers may gain insight into their own motivation for leadership. Implications for flourishing as a leader, in terms of effectiveness as well as well-being, are discussed for each concept and measure provided. Dawn Chandler and Kathy Kram (Chapter 12) emphasize the role other people play in one’s leadership development. Leadership is essentially a relational process, so it should come as no surprise that other people can be central to its development. Others can support leadership development through mentoring, providing 360-degree

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feedback, and the benefits of developmental networks. Chandler and Kram indicate how managers can proactively use relationships to guide their development as leaders. Self-awareness is a critical catalyst in their model. When one is clear about one’s motivations it can lead to the identification of relevant job- and career-related knowledge and career contacts and networks. They offer specific questions one needs to ask to address one’s developmental needs. Managers are likely to face failure, disappointment, disillusionment, career setbacks and adversity at points in their lives. Gillian King and Mitchell Rothstein (Chapter 13) discuss the importance of personal resilience at these critical times. Learning from such experiences is vital. Failure offers opportunities for significant personal and career choices with resilience-related processes opening up more directions. Resilience involves ‘bouncing back’. Resilience is a capability and like all capabilities can be strengthened. Their model of resilience in the workplace includes feeling, thought and action components. Each of these is defined, expanded upon and illustrated using management and organization examples. They conclude with suggestions on strengthening resilience. Krista Langkamer Ratwani, Stephen Zaccaro, Sena Garven and David Geller (Chapter 14) emphasize self-development on the premise that leaders need to be engaged in continuous learning. Leader self-development requires self-appraisal, self-regulation, and the development of self-learning activities and opportunities, as well as an inventory of available learning resources, and clear definitions of important leadership competencies. Supportive activities include learning tools tied to self-development goals, assessments of learning progress, and ways to stay motivated towards self-development. Langkamer et al. integrate these preparatory and supportive activities into a ‘self-instructional system’ consistent with traditional training models. Social networks (for example, mentors, advisors, coaches, bosses, peers) perform a significant role in both preparatory and supportive initiatives. Developmental social networks expand the range of resources available to emerging leaders. The authors examine the processes of leadership development and the role of developmental social networks, and why these have value, in considerable detail.

In the third part of the book, the topic areas focus on some unique challenges to self-management faced by leaders in the rapidly changing global business context. Topics in this part include challenges faced by women leaders in academia, the next generation of leaders, and global leaders.

An overview ●





19

Paula Caligiuri and Ruchi Sinha (Chapter 15) apply concepts of selfassessment and self-development to potential global leaders. They begin by outlining tasks or activities among those holding global leadership roles. Cultural agility, the ability of individuals ‘to move quickly and successfully from one cultural context to another’, lies at the heart of their thinking. Individuals can develop global leadership competencies through self-initiated activities and organizationinitiated development programs. Individual differences and the self-assessment of these differences are discussed in considerable depth. Self-assessments address knowledge, skills, abilities and personality characteristics necessary for success in other countries and cultures. Tools for supporting such self-assessments are indicated in their chapter. Linley Lord and Susan Vinnicombe (Chapter 16) discuss the importance of self-management techniques in the context of how they can be used to address a very specific applied problem – the lack of leadership opportunities for women in Australian universities. The authors describe a study they conducted to examine this problem using a qualitative research design. Their purpose was to identify what women in leadership positions, or aspiring to these positions, can do to develop their leadership potential. First, they describe the nature of the problem in Australian universities. Factors such as negative role models, lack of preparation for leadership roles, lack of acceptance or support, and many other components contributing to this problem are identified. The authors then provide recommendations, based on their research, on self-management techniques for women seeking development in these leadership positions. The reader will recognize some of these techniques as they are discussed by several other authors in the current volume, providing support for their general value to leadership development in many organizational contexts (for example, seeking out mentors, developing social networks). One unique self-management technique found in this context, however, was to use negative role models to identify how not to act. Subjects in this study reported this approach was born out of necessity when there were few positive role models to emulate, but that it was a useful and helpful addition to their efforts to self-manage. Philip Mirvis, Kevin Thompson and Chris Marquis (Chapter 17) examine the question of what leadership skills will be required of the next generation regarding business leaders. They begin by describing the economic and social changes that are already underway, which will add to the complexity of the next generation of leaders’ work.

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Self-management and leadership development



Just one example of the effect on leaders’ behavior is the demand for more transparency, sustainable business practices, and responsible leadership. Mirvis et al. focus on four domains of developing the next generation of leadership: self-leadership, leading others, leading systems, and leading enterprises. For each domain, they then provide a ‘developmental agenda’ – a detailed analysis of the competencies for next generation leaders. For example, in the domain of self-leadership, they describe the importance of competencies such as self-awareness, reflection, cognitive complexity, tolerance for ambiguity, adaptability, and emotional resilience. Optimal development experiences are next outlined for these competencies, followed by a detailed case example of how IBM’s Corporate Service Corps has incorporated these experiences to develop the next generation of leadership competencies. Lyndon Rego, David Altman and Steadman Harrison (Chapter 18) ‘democratize’ leadership development beyond large organizations and extend it to young men and women in the developing world. In their case, leadership development emphasizes building self-awareness and individual skills to be more effective in working with others (that is, soft skills). Their model, Assessment, Challenge and Support (ACS) involves understanding of self and others, identifying growth experiences that lead to development, and providing support and help in reaching growth goals. They provide interesting case examples of how ACS has been used in several developing countries to improve the quality of people’s lives and to build their communities.

SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS There is a growing body of literature in the areas of person–job fit and person–organizational fit showing clearly that individuals who achieve a better fit with their jobs and workplaces are more satisfied and healthy (Leiter and Maslach, 2005). Self-management provides individuals with the opportunity to take responsibility to achieve greater levels of fit with their jobs and careers. The current worldwide economic downturn is forcing many university graduates to reconsider their career options, at least in the short term. Most business school graduates have in the past decade or more gravitated to financial services, consulting and accounting careers, motivated by the high salaries given to individuals working in these areas. The current recession has resulted in significantly fewer firms in these sectors hiring university graduates, and those fortunate enough to

An overview

21

get jobs often take lower salaries. Those without jobs are exploring careers in very different sectors including health care, social services, non-profit organizations, and small businesses. A by-product of these events is that aspiring leaders must learn to self-manage more effectively to thrive in this environment, but by doing so, they may in fact achieve greater levels of person–job and person–organization fit and thereby greater levels of personal satisfaction with their jobs and careers.

REFERENCES Barreto, M., Ryan, M.K. and Schmitt, M.T. (2009) The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Buckingham, M. (2007), Go Put Your Strengths to Work, New York: The Free Press. Buckingham, M. and Clifton, D.O. (2001), Now Discover Your Strengths, New York: The Free Press. Burke, R.J. (2006). ‘Why leaders fail: exploring the dark side’, in R.J. Burke and C.L. Cooper (eds), Inspiring Leaders, London: Routledge, pp. 237–46. Burke, R.J. and Cooper, C.L. (2004), Leading in Turbulent Times: Managing in the New World of Work, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. Burke, R.J. and Cooper, C.L. (2006), Inspiring Leaders, London: Routledge. Burke, R.J. and Mattis, M.C. (2005), Supporting Women’s Career Advancement: Challenges and Opportunities, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar. Clawson, J.G., Kotter, J.P., Faux, V.A. and McArthur, C.C. (1992), Selfassessment and Career Development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Drucker, P. (1999), Management Challenges for the 21st Century, New York: HarperCollins. Drummond, H. and Chell, E. (2000), ‘Life’s chances and choices: a study of entrapment in career decisions with reference to Becker’s side bets theory’, Personnel Review, 30, 186–202. Eagly, A.H. and Carli, L.L. (2007), Through the Labyrinth: The Truth about how Women Become Leaders, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Friedman, S.D. (2008a), ‘Be a better leader, have a richer life’, Harvard Business Review, April, 112–18. Friedman, S.D. (2008b), Be a Better Leader, have a Richer Life, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Fulmer, R.M. and Conger, J.A. (2004), Growing your Company’s Leaders, New York: AMACOM. Hogan, R. and Hogan, J. (2001), ‘Assessing leadership: a view of the dark side’, International Journal of Evaluation and Assessment, 9, 40–51. Kaplan, R.E. (2006), ‘Lopsidedness in leaders: strategies for assessing it and correcting it’, in R.J. Burke and C.L. Cooper (eds), Inspiring Leaders, London: Routledge, pp. 293–304. Kaplan, R.E. and Kaiser, R.B. (2006), The Versatile Leader: Making the Most of your Strengths – Without Overdoing it, San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer.

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Kaplan, R.E., and Kaiser, R.B. (2009), ‘Stop overdoing your strengths’, Harvard Business Review, February, 100–103. Kellerman, B. (2004), Bad Leadership, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Korman, A.K. and Korman, R.W. (1980), Career Success/Personal Failure, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kotter, J.P. (1996), Leading Change, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Leiter, M.P. and Maslach, C. (2005), Banishing Burnout: Six Strategies for Improving your Relationship with Work, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Mainiero, L.A. and Sullivan, S.E. (2005), ‘Kaleidoscope careers: an alternative explanation for the “opt-out” revolution’, Academy of Management Executive, 19, 106–23. Mainiero, L.A. and Sullivan, S.E. (2006), The Opt-out Revolt: Why People are Leaving Companies to Create Kaleidoscope Careers, Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. McCauley, C.D. and Van Velsor, E. (2004), Handbook of Leadership Development, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Michaels, E., Handfield-Jones, H., and Axelrod, B. (2001), The War for Talent, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Mintzberg, H. (2004), Managers not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and Management Development, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler. Moses, B. (1997), Career Intelligence, Toronto, Canada: Stoddart. Murphy, K.R. and Cleveland, J.N. (1995), Understanding Performance Appraisal: Social, Organizational, and Goal-Based Perspectives, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Nash, L. and Stevenson, H. (2004a), ‘Success that lasts’, Harvard Business Review, February, 103–109. Nash, L. and Stevenson, H. (2004b), Just Enough. Tools for Creating Success in your Work and Life, New York: John Wiley. Ruderman, M.N. and Ohlott, P.J. (2002), Standing at the Crossroads: Next Steps for High Achieving Women, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Tichy, N.M. (1997), The Leadership Engine: How Winning Companies Build Leaders at Every Level, New York: HarperCollins. Useem, M. (1998), The Leadership Moment: Nine True Stories of Triumph and Disaster and their Lessons for us all, New York: Three Rivers Press. Useem, M. (2006), The Go Point: When it is Time to Decide – Knowing What to Do and When to Do it, New York: Three Rivers Press. Van Velsor, E. and Leslie, J.B. (1995), ‘Why executives derail: perspectives across time and cultures’, Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 62–72. Vinnicombe, S. and Bank, J. (2003). Women with Attitude: Lessons for Career Management, London: Routledge. Whetten, D.A. and Cameron, K.S. (1998), Developing Management Skills, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Yukl, G. (1998), Leadership in Organizations, Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall.

PART I

Self-Awareness and Leadership Development

1.

The role of the individual in self-assessment for leadership development1 Allan H. Church and Christopher T. Rotolo

Much has been written over the last hundred years about the study of leadership and the practice of leadership development. The field has seen everything from different taxonomies and typologies proposed of leadership as a construct (e.g. Antonakis et al., 2004; Bass, 1990; Burke, 1982), to more focused applications regarding the development of leadership skills and capabilities through development interventions and planned experiences (e.g., Byham et al., 2002; Conger and Benjamin, 1999; Fulmer and Conger, 2004; McCall, 1998). There has even been a popular emphasis in recent years on the concept of differentiated stages and developmental needs for leaders as they progress in their careers, popularized by the Leadership Pipeline (Charan et al., 2001). While these approaches are all very important to the field, they often assume that leaders are fully engaged in the learning and development agenda that is being offered or applied. It is difficult to imagine that a well constructed leadership development program or a developmental move to a new leadership role in an emerging market will have a significant impact on the individual’s development if he or she does not possess certain key individual characteristics such as a willingness to learn, an openness to change, and the motivation and ambition to succeed in the future. These approaches also often assume that what is being offered from a tools, intervention or curriculum perspective is accurately filling the leader’s specific developmental needs. That said, it is interesting to note that very few treatments of leadership development focus on the important role that the individual leader (or learner) plays him or herself in this process. Self-assessment, or the use of multiple sources of data about the individual to help him or her identify areas of strength and development, has played an important role in leadership development (Jeanneret and Silzer, 1998). When included strategically in a larger leadership development 25

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effort (or as the development effort itself), it can not only increase the leader’s engagement and motivation to develop, but also helps to pinpoint the right areas for development. Self-assessment for development, therefore, serves to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the development effort. In addition, the ability to recognize one’s strengths, development areas, and overall effectiveness is important before a leader can make appropriate decisions to change his or her behavior in the future (Ashford, 1989). While considerable theory and applied research have been done on the related subjects of self-awareness as part of a 360-degree feedback process (e.g., Antonioni, 1996; Bracken et al., 2001; Church, 1997; London and Beatty, 1993), understanding the role career-development-related selfmanagement behaviors (e.g., Chiaburu et al., 2006; Kossek et al., 1998), feedback-seeking behaviors (e.g., Ashford, 1986; Janssen and Prins, 2007), and empowered self-development (e.g., London and Smither, 1999), few practitioner efforts in these areas explicitly describe in depth the elements of a self-assessment and development process from the individual’s perspective, nor do they discuss the key moderators to successful self-development efforts. The few that do venture into this area tend to be relatively short chapters or tips and tactics in development resource guides such as The Leadership Machine (Lombardo and Eichinger, 2002) or the Successful Manager’s Handbook (Personnel Decisions International Corporation, 2004). Typically, however, the emphasis in these types of books is on providing a ‘mini coaching session’ versus an exploration of the underlying stages of development or the factors involved. The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the literature in this area by focusing on the role of self-assessment in leadership development efforts. Our emphasis here is on the process by which individual leaders use assessments and feedback from a variety of sources to create insights, develop action plans, take action to manage their own development, and assess the results of their efforts. We will begin by describing three key moderators to effective self-assessment and development (i.e., organizational cultural orientation, supporting tools and processes, and individual characteristics) that are applicable at different phases in the change model. Next we will introduce a five-phase individual feedback development and change model which is grounded in existing theory and practice in the area of Organization Development (OD). Each phase of the model will be discussed in detail with an emphasis on the role of the individual in the assessment and development process. Examples from PepsiCo will be included where relevant and appropriate. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some key questions regarding the area of self-assessment for development.

The role of the individual in self-assessment

27

KEY MODERATORS TO EFFECTIVE SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Before moving into the process for self-assessment and development it is important to have a clear understanding of the potential moderators or contextual factors that can have a significant impact on the success or failure of these types of efforts. While these factors are also important to consider when planning any sort of leadership program, they are critically important to the success of self-directed development. Organizational Cultural Orientation The first factor to consider is the organizational cultural orientation, particularly as it relates to the perceived value of leadership development efforts. By cultural orientation we are referring to a number of facets. One of these is the belief structure of senior leadership (which is one of the most powerful ways that a culture is created and therefore a reflection of what is valued in that organization). Individual learners are unlikely to want to engage in development activities if their senior leadership does not support their efforts via funding for assessment measures, time away from work for their own development, or simply lacks an expressed interest in development. Sponsorship for development from the top of the organization is critical in ensuring a learning and supportive culture, as is the case with most OD and culture change interventions (Burke, 1994). Similarly, the extent to which senior leaders model behaviors that support their own personal continued development will impact the motivation levels of lower-level leaders to embrace development themselves. Supporting Tools and Processes The second moderating factor, which is somewhat related to the leadership and culture/environment they create, is the availability and number of supporting tools and processes for development. While there are many types of self-assessment tools and learning and development programs (as will be discussed later), the extent to which the organization provides access to these (either internally through formal programs or externally through various vendor relationships) can make a significant difference in how much development an individual learner can engage in successfully. For example, if an organization only offers two 40-person attendee leadership programs in a given year, even the most ambitious leader will have difficulty advancing their case for attendance if the target population for that program is all 400 middle managers. It could take as long as five

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years before an individual will be able to attend. In a situation such as this, self-directed development behavior will require other means. As noted above, organizations vary considerably in how much emphasis they place on leadership development, and as a result, the philosophical stance they take regarding providing access to tools and resources. In our experience there is a continuum here between companies that emphasize individual accountability for development (for example, we will provide the tools but you must be the initiator and drive your own development), and those that are quite prescriptive in nature (for example, you must progress through these programs, experiences and assessments before being allowed to move to a new role or level in the hierarchy). Some researchers have suggested that the trend swung towards more selfmanagement of careers as much as a decade ago given the downsizing efforts and other changes that occurred in the employment contract during the 1980s and 1990s (Kossek et al., 1998). This is probably a positive shift in direction (although providing no formal development programs at all would be a serious concern to us) given that it allows those individuals with a clear desire and motivation to develop the opportunities and tools to do so themselves. Clearly, it can be more difficult for individuals to engage in developmental experiences if the only ones offered are through formal prescriptive channels. Regardless of where an organization is on the continuum, the tools and resources available to a leader clearly have an impact on his or her ability to develop. This is why companies selected for inclusion in the ‘Top companies for leaders’ lists (e.g., Fortune, 2007) usually have a multi-platform approach to development (for example, classroom, distance learning, web-based, coaching and mentoring programs). At PepsiCo the philosophy is a shared one between the employee, the manager, and the organization, that is, somewhere in the middle of the continuum (see Figure 1.1). Individual Characteristics The final and perhaps most important moderating variable in selfassessment and development are the individual characteristics of the leader in question. These characteristics essentially break down into three separate areas: (a) the personality disposition and motivation to develop; (b) the level of learning ability and cognitive capacity to develop; and (c) the degree of career aspirations to develop and advance. For selfdevelopment to occur in a leadership context the individual needs to be moderate to high on all three of these areas. In short, the psychological make-up of the individual will directly impact on his or her ability to learn from assessment tools, motivation to seek assessment and development

The role of the individual in self-assessment

Employees

Managers

• Providing developmental coaching • Providing performance feedback • Following-up from people planning • Discussing potential future roles

Figure 1.1

29

• Driving for business results • Demonstrating perseverance • Continually developing skills • Identifying career aspirations

Organization

• Providing world-class experiences • Offering formal training • Developing strategies to drive growth • Enabling with core processes and tools

PepsiCo career development partnership model

efforts, and level of personal engagement in the process. This can affect all phases of assessment-development. Let us take some simple examples using concepts from various personality theories and measures (e.g., Burke and Noumair, 2002; Costa and McCrae, 1991; Hogan Assessment Systems, 2009; Hogan and Shelton, 1998). Individuals with a low learning ability or orientation will be far less likely to want to seek development opportunities on their own, let alone attend offerings provided by an organization. Leaders with lower than average levels of ambition or motivation to enhance their standing or develop in their career would also be less likely to exhibit interest in initiating a self-assessment and development process. Introverts or individuals with low affiliation needs may be less willing to share their feedback with others or work with a coach on a development plan. From a social motive perspective (McClelland, 1961), individuals may engage in self-assessment and development for different reasons. Those high in a need for achievement, for example, may seek opportunities to improve their performance or achieve their career goals. On the other hand, those high in need for power may see the exercise as critical to moving up the corporate ladder. Lastly, those high in a need for affiliation may engage in these activities simply because they are opportunities to meet new people or better understand their colleagues. Even if an individual does have the motivation to complete an assessment tool, the initial feedback they receive may be completely denied or overly anxiety provoking to the point of paralysis if they are low in adjustment. Individuals low in conscientiousness are less likely to follow through with their action plan.

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As noted above, however, personality is not the only factor as other types of skill sets and capabilities can also impact self-assessment-related behavior. The degree to which an individual has the cognitive capacity and learning ability to recognize new information from developmental activities and integrate and synthesize those learnings is also a critical component. Someone with a lower than average IQ is much less likely to be able to process new information from a leadership styles assessment tool and make effective use of the insights identified than someone with a higher cognitive ability. Constructs such as learning agility (Lombardo and Eichinger, 2000) and feedback-seeking behavior (e.g., Ashford, 1986; Janssen and Prins, 2007) are also relevant here. Even existing levels of self-awareness can also play an important moderating role in whether the individual initiates or gains any further insights from their developmental actions at all (e.g., Bracken et al., 2001). Finally, the third area of individual characteristics, the level of career aspirations that someone may have, is also important to consider from a self-development perspective, and is particularly important when considering development from an organizational context. Although related to motivation and ambition, these concepts are not synonymous. An individual may be very motivated to succeed in his or her career, for example, but not at all interested in attaining any of the existing roles that are higher in his or her specific organization (for example, perhaps because of the managers of those roles, their geographical location, or simply because of the elements of the jobs themselves). Conversely, we have seen many individuals who have very high career aspirations but who are unwilling or unmotivated to engage in the assessment and development efforts that would be required to attain them (for example, perhaps they are unwilling to move to Asia for several years to obtain the critical experience of leading in an emerging market). From an individual perspective, then, it is critical to truly understand your own motivational levels, but also your own career aspiration levels, and what you would be willing to put up with to attain those roles (for example, level of geographic mobility, learning a new set of language skills, changing to a new function and having to step back on the career ladder temporarily in order to learn new capabilities). Of course organizations desire an accurate assessment of this information as well for development and succession planning purposes (Silzer and Church, forthcoming).

A TYPOLOGY OF LEADER LEARNERS In our experience of working with different types of leaders on development efforts we have identified six distinct types of individuals that in

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many ways combine some of the individual factors discussed above. As will be evident from the descriptions below, the degree to which each of these would be willing to initiate self-directed development efforts will differ considerably. The six types are as follows: 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

‘First timers’ are individuals who have not yet experienced formal developmental assessments and action planning efforts. Once they have experienced the process for the first time they are reclassified into one of the other categories. ‘Feedback junkies’ are individuals who take advantage of every opportunity for developmental feedback that they can, and regularly seek it of their own accord. These are the most likely types of leaders to engage in self-assessments. ‘Good soldiers’ are individuals who willingly comply with a development program, process or mandate without overly complaining, regardless of their internal opinion of the effort. These types will engage in self-directed development if instructed to do so as part of their formal responsibilities. ‘Begrudging adopters’ are individuals who will also comply with mandated development efforts but who are outwardly dissatisfied with some aspects or elements of the process. They will also be likely to engage in self-development if required to do so. Sometimes these individuals become more positive following a successful feedback and action planning process. ‘Resisters’ are individuals who are completely negative and will probably be resistive or even refuse to engage in the process at all. Mandates may work, but self-directed development is less likely to occur among this group unless there is truly something perceived to be in it for them. ‘Renegades’ are individuals who intentionally attempt to understand and then game the system (for example, inflate self-assessment ratings, invite only friends or family members to rate them on assessments, bully direct reports into proving positive ratings) to their own advantage for personal gain. These individuals will utilize the self-development process but in a potentially unethical manner.

We will refer back to these types of leaders from time to time as we discuss the process phases of self-assessment and development in more detail. Next we will discuss the foundation for the feedback development process and its philosophical grounding in the field of OD and change.

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THE CONTEXT OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT While many would be likely to agree that the field of leadership development and OD are different areas of research and practice, the fact remains that there is considerable overlap between the two. From an OD perspective leadership development reflects a targeted practice area, that is, focusing on leaders as a lever for change versus an emphasis on mission, culture, strategy, climate, systems or other factors (see Burke and Litwin, 1992 for a comprehensive model). Thus, leadership development is one of many possible interventions or approaches to driving organizational change, whether it is in the form of action learning (e.g., Marquardt, 1999; Marsick et al., 2002), a formal leadership curriculum such as the ones used at Johnson and Johnson (Fulmer, 2001) or PepsiCo (Conger and Benjamin, 1999), or using 360 feedback for leaders to drive cultural integration at SmithKline Beecham (Burke and Jackson, 1991; Church et al., 2001). From a leadership development perspective, however, OD is more on the periphery since the primary emphasis is often on building leadership capability (for example, learning new skills or building selfawareness to support development planning), and improving the quality of the talent for the organization’s bench for more senior roles. That said, when any form of individual assessment or self-assessment component is added to a leadership development effort it is essentially adding a critical component of OD to the process. Although few practitioners would consider individual assessment as being an OD intervention per se, the manner in which the assessment information is processed and utilized by the leader to drive development change is very consistent with an OD approach. One of the core tenets of OD is that change and improvement, whether at the individual or organizational level, are facilitated through a databased process (Waclawski and Church, 2002). Based on the early work of Kurt Lewin (1946) and later adapted to the popular change model of Beckhard and Harris (1987), data provides the means for (a) unfreezing the individual from the current state; (b) helping them create a plan for movement, development or change; and (c) achieving that desired future state. This approach also forms the basis for the seven-phase OD consulting model (Church et al., 2001). The phases are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Entry Contracting Data gathering Data analysis Data feedback

The role of the individual in self-assessment

6. 7.

33

Intervention Evaluation.

Both Lewin’s original change model and the consulting model remain quite popular in the OD field today, and are the underlying principles behind tools and processes such as organizational culture surveys, 360 feedback programs, focus groups and interviews, action learning programs, and so on (Waclawski and Church, 2002). Over the years, however, many practitioners have observed that the pace of change in organizations has dramatically increased, such as Peter Vaill with his classic description of the term ‘permanent whitewater’ back in 1989. We would argue further that this rate has only increased exponentially since then with examples such as the fall of Enron in 2001, industry consolidation in different sectors, and the collapse of the financial sector in 2008. The result of such change is that the desired future state is often not achieved before more change is needed. From an individual leadership development perspective, however, enhancing one’s unique skills and abilities is definitely achievable (for a given learning or development objective) through data-based interventions if the appropriate conditions are present. As a result, we can quite easily adapt the OD consulting model to the process of leadership development particularly when some form of assessment (for example, self or other) is the primary impetus for change.

FIVE-PHASE INDIVIDUAL FEEDBACK DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE MODEL Although not quite a one-to-one translation, the process for using selfassessment in development efforts is quite consistent with the OD model. The differences are more in the subtleties between how certain phases come together in the self-assessment process. The idea here is that there is some form of data that unfreezes the individual from their current state, then drives insights and understanding about some aspect of their development needs, and then ultimately results in the selection of an intervention of some sort (for example, an action plan). In addition, the orientation in our model is from the individual’s perspective rather than from that of the client to whom the consulting effort is being directed. Similar to how OD practitioners see themselves as instruments of change (e.g., Burke, 1982; Cheung-Judge, 2001; Seashore et al., 2004), in our model the self essentially becomes the instrument of one’s own change. From our perspective there are five distinct phases to the self-assessment and development process. We use the term phases here, not steps, because

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some overlap can occur at times throughout the process of development. The five phases are: I. II. III. IV. V.

Initiation (a combination of entry and essentially self-contracting for the development process) Assessment and feedback (this combines the data gathering and feedback phases) Planning for development (this reflects parts of the analysis phase and parts of the intervention phase) Taking action (essentially the intervention phase, and the types of developmental actions can range as widely as those in OD) Measuring change (the evaluation phase, although rather than evaluating the intervention the individual is measuring progress against their development plan).

Next we will discuss the application, process, contextual factors, and potential challenges for self-directed development through each of these five phases of the model. Phase I: Initiation The first phase in the model, initiation, is the process of an individual leader electing or deciding to engage in some individual development work. A very significant part of the self-development equation, literally this is the process of someone saying to themselves ‘I need some development’ to achieve a specific end in mind. While this is unlikely to occur with first timers, resisters or renegades, clearly this is the purview of feedback junkies and perhaps good soldiers or even begrudging adopters, depending on their point of view and level of self-awareness, ambition, career aspiration and introspection. Regardless of the type of learner, there are four important aspects to initiation that need to be considered during this phase largely because these can both impact and be impacted by the three moderating variables discussed earlier. These are described below. Impetus for development The first aspect or question to consider is where exactly does the desire for self-development come from? What is the origin or impetus? Other than feedback junkies, relatively few individuals, except perhaps Millennials as some have suggested (e.g., Dychtwald et al., 2006; Hankin, 2005; Zemke et al., 2000), are probably consciously and constantly seeking their own development regardless of the context. Here we have several options, and this is where the moderating variable of individual characteristics plays

The role of the individual in self-assessment

35

a role. Individuals high in career aspiration, motivation to succeed, or learning orientation are going to be much more driven to engage in selfdevelopment and therefore initiate a developmental process. Someone that truly wants to obtain a promotion or reach the highest level position in marketing (for example, Chief Marketing Officer) in an organization is likely to seek out any and all developmental opportunities in whatever form they may exist. Similarly, someone who is a voracious learner will read as many books and articles and Google as many constructs as they can to continue to stimulate their thinking and expand their knowledge base. Some individuals proactively elect to change careers, and with that decision comes the need for the development of new skills and knowledge. These are perhaps the simplest of cases and the easiest to understand why they would initiate a developmental experience. On the opposite side of the equation are those individuals who lack the self-awareness and/ or interest in engaging in any sort of development (and if coerced by the system to engage will become at best begrudging adopters and at worst resisters or renegades). In other cases, however, where these characteristics are perhaps at a more moderate level in the leader, the impetus is likely to have originated from some form of data from another individual, source or process. For example, one-on-one feedback from a manager regarding development needs to sustain current performance in a role is a common reason for individuals pursuing some form of development. Coaching from a Human Resources (HR) professional regarding career progression and the lack of certain skills required to advance is another very common driver of development activity. One-on-one engagements with a professional external coach are also an increasingly popular source of development ideas (e.g., Valerio and Lee, 2005). In addition, many formal leadership development programs include a component of assessment and follow-up development planning (e.g., Seldman, 2008) and in some cases action learning projects (e.g., Conger and Benjamin, 1999; Tichy and DeRose, 1996) that essentially require an individual to engage in a self-directed development experience. In some organizations continuous individual development is simply expected and supported as part of the culture such as at Google (Mills, 2007) and the senior most leaders reinforce it. As noted earlier, the number of hours a CEO spends in succession planning, talent reviews and/or actively engaged in leadership programs is often a criterion of the best companies for developing leader lists (e.g., Fortune, 2007). In comparison, in other companies continuous development is integrated into a formal process such as performance management or career development. At PepsiCo, for example, leaders are required to have a Career Development Action Plan (CDAP) that includes annual developmental objectives focused on helping them achieve their long-term

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career goals. Church et al. (2002b) provide an overview of the role of technology in integrating the PepsiCo career development tools. The bottom line here is that how the self-development process is initiated will have an impact on how well the development agenda is executed and the long-term growth of the individual. Purpose of development The second consideration regarding the initiation phase is for the individual to answer the question regarding what exactly is being developed and why? Let us start with the why. While we discussed the why as an impetus above for the initiation itself, in this context the why is more about the answer to the question, to what end? Regardless of the source or need for development, leaders deciding to engage in a developmental assessment process need to fully understand and embrace the purpose of that effort. Otherwise given the pressure on everyone’s time, they will engage in some other activity. For a vast majority of individuals (exceptions noted earlier), development must have a purpose. This could be to obtain a promotion, enhance their current performance, change to another functional area, switch to a new career, or simply broaden their general knowledge base and mindset. So the end state goal is an important one and also one that impacts a leader’s level of motivation to engage in particular. Switching to the what that is being developed is another consideration. Often this is clearly identified by some influential individual in an organization (for example, manager, senior leader, coach or mentor, or HR professional), process feedback or program (for example, performance management, a talent review where a clear gap in capability or competency has been identified, or a CEO-led leadership program where future needs are identified), or even an individual’s self-selected need for a functional or career change. It may even be the result of a prior assessment tool (for example, conflict management is identified as an outage based on a broader measure of leadership skills resulting in the search for a more indepth assessment and development plan targeted at this competency). In other cases the initiative for self-development may be more diffuse. Under what conditions do leaders simply decide to engage in a leadership styles assessment or participate in an assessment center on their own? How do they select the right tools, programs, processes? Again this brings us back to the moderating variable of individual characteristics. Assessment options The third major aspect of initiation, and related to the idea of what needs to be developed, is the identification and selection of a development assessment, tool or instrument. Since our focus here is on self-directed

The role of the individual in self-assessment

Personality measures

Leadership competencies

Functional competencies

Targeted areas/special skills

Figure 1.2

37

Types of assessments

assessment for development (versus just deciding to engage in any type of developmental activity) this is a critical area for the individual to consider. The leadership development field (as well as the realm of IndustrialOrganizational (I/O) Psychology and even the broader area of Human Resource Management) is replete with assessments tools, measures, scorecards and checklists which focus on all sorts of constructs ranging from the broadest leadership orientation to the most minute skill sets in areas such as presentation skills, to an increasingly wide range of personality variables (some of which are well validated and psychometrically sound, and others which are entirely without any merit whatsoever). In fact, a Google search on the term ‘self-assessment leadership’ in June 2009 resulted in over 2 600 000 hits. Clearly, anyone and everyone can create an assessment tool, just not necessarily one that is psychometrically grounded. Thus it is critical that leaders consult the appropriate content experts (for example, I/O, OD or HR professionals) when selecting a tool or measure for assessment as part of their development plan. In terms of the options for assessment in this area, when initiating a new development agenda there are generally four broad categories of measures for individuals to choose from. These consist of the following (see Figure 1.2): 1.

Personality measures. Usually grounded in psychological theory, these are generally self-only assessments that provide feedback on an individual’s level of a given attribute, type, dimension, factor or other element of personality based on the given framework of the instrument. These get at the underlying reasons why an individual leader behaves the way they do. Personality has been a commonly used assessment tool for many years (Jeanneret and Silzer, 1998) and is often integrated with other more behaviorally oriented assessment tools such as 360-degree feedback for assessment and development purposes (e.g., Burke and Noumair, 2002). The challenge with these

38

2.

3.

4.

Self-management and leadership development

measures, however, is that personality as a construct is difficult to change and thus development planning can be challenging. The emphasis here is often on mitigating the effects of a given personality profile and/or a focus on what is commonly referred to as derailers (e.g., Dotlich and Cairo, 2003; Hogan Assessment Systems, 2009). Leadership competencies. Perhaps the most common form of assessment in the current leadership development marketplace, measures of leadership competencies (or skills, styles, behaviors, and so on) form the basis of both many individual assessment tools as well as the core of the majority of 360-degree feedback programs (Bracken et al., 2001; Church and Waclawski, 1998; Gentry and Leslie, 2007). Since these are generally conceptualized as skills, the prevailing wisdom is that they can be developed through experiences on the job, coaching and mentoring, and formal training. Most of the popular development resource guides noted earlier focus on these types of leadership competencies as targeted development areas for individuals, and provide a wealth of ideas and suggestions for improvement. Functional competencies. Not surprisingly, the use of assessment tools that direct individuals in how to develop functional skills is probably one of the longest established practices. Dating back to the concept of the apprentice in the middle ages and more recently characterized by the notion of an internship, there are an abundance of tools and models that focus on helping individuals determine their strengths and development areas regarding functional knowledge (for an example of an HR competency model applied to a developmental career framework, see Church and Herena, 2003). From an individual leadership development perspective these are most useful to focus on for more junior individuals in the early stages of their careers, or for those electing to move across functions to broaden their perspective, or those that have decided to switch careers entirely. At PepsiCo, for example, implicit in our Career Growth Model (a developmental framework for all employees), functional competence is required earlier in one’s career and then, as leaders progress to higher levels, leadership capability becomes more important in the mix (Church and Waclawski, forthcoming). Targeted areas/special skills. The fourth and final area of individual developmental focus is typically around special skill sets or more specific targeted competencies. Examples of self-assessments and development resources here include social skills, conflict management, group facilitation, presentation acumen, time management, candidate interview techniques, stress management, PowerPoint tips and tricks, and even managing one’s own executive presence and stamina

The role of the individual in self-assessment

39

(Seldman and Seldman, 2008). The selection of one of these areas is generally driven by personalized feedback from some other source or process or at the suggestion of a coach or mentor. The offerings in this area also range from the very well grounded to the entirely ethereal in their content. Again the leader searching for the right assessment and supporting tools is best advised to consult a subject matter expert (SME) before moving forward. Also, many of the resource guides noted earlier have great suggestions for development in many of these areas. Critical nature of self-assessment The fourth and final aspect of the initiation phase is, on the one hand, the most obvious, and on the other, the most often overlooked. That is, the inclusion of a self-assessment component to any planned assessment and development learning intervention. As individual leaders select their development tools it is critical that they choose those that also have a self-assessment component. Based on the extensive literature around 360degree feedback (e.g., Antonioni, 1996; Bracken et al., 2001; Church and Waclawski, 1998; Lepsinger and Lucia, 1997; London, 1997) and even at the heart of the principles from our perspective of some types of clinical psychology including psychoanalysis, the inclusion of self-assessments provides a perspective (when compared with views from other co-workers, managers, external clients, peers, second-level managers, and so on), that is invaluable to helping the individual leader understand exactly where they stand relative to their own perspective versus the more grounded behaviorally based observations of other co-workers. Going back to the Lewin and Beckhard change models, it is imperative that the individual has the opportunity to see the difference between behavioral observations that is afforded by having a self versus other comparison in an assessment process. More specifically, this comparison and the cognitive processing outcome as a result is what creates the need for change (again the concept of unfreezing from the present state) in an individual and therefore the raison d’être for engaging in development activities. Church et al. (2002a) outline a model for how this process occurs at multiple levels in the organization. While some practitioners focus on only assessment from others (and we agree these are valuable inputs in and of themselves), from our perspective it is critical that the self-assessment be included in any type of leadership development effort that is intended to have a significant impact. It is the cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957) between a leader’s own perceptions and those of others that will create the burning platform for change – that is, to create a development plan and act on it (as will be discussed in greater detail).

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Phase II: Assessment and Feedback Moving next into the second phase in the individual feedback development and change model is the concept of the assessment process and the feedback results that follow. This is the phase that combines both the elements of conducting the actual assessment itself (for example, including responding to various assessment tools and measures, or being observed in an assessment center, or working with an executive coach), along with the data that is provided from the assessment process (for example, the 360-degree feedback report, normative comparisons, personality profile, narrative summary of strengths and development areas). Once again in this phase there are several different elements for the leader and individual self-learner to consider. In general these consist of (a) how the assessment is conducted and the type of data collected; (b) the modalities by which the feedback will be delivered; and (c) the natural reactions individuals have to any type of data-based feedback on their behavior (that is, good or bad). Each of these will be described below. Types of assessments Once an individual has decided to proceed with a development initiative (and the question of what is being developed has been answered), the next consideration is what type of assessment tool should be utilized. While in some instances the nature of the development area may in fact dictate the tool selected, more often than not the leader will have a variety of options available to him or her. As noted above, these range across a variety of content areas and include everything from individual self-initiated (and self-only) assessment tools (for example, online personality measures, adjective checklists, or behavioral items and rating scales), to multi-rater assessments of skills, behaviors or capabilities such as 360-degree feedback, which is one of the more commonly used tools in organizations today (Bracken et al., 2001), to more in-depth observation based assessment processes such as participating in an assessment center or being shadowed by an executive coach during the course of a working day, week or month. Of course each of these assessment approaches has a cost associated with it both in terms of time and resources required. These can range from hardly nothing at all (for example, to complete a free conflict management assessment online) to extremely expensive and intensive (for example, being observed by a coach for a month or more). Below are some high-level examples of costs associated with various external development options. ●

Reading a series of business books or journal articles and taking some sort of knowledge test (free to about $250).

The role of the individual in self-assessment ● ●











41

Personality assessment online (free to about $300 depending on model, vendor, and level of rigor associated with the test). 360-degree feedback assessment online (free to about $500 depending on content, vendor, level of oversight by manager or the HR function when selecting raters, and so on). Engaging in an online learning course or distance learning program with an assessment component at the end ($100 to $1000 or more depending on content and length of learning – these can run even higher for online executive MBA programs). Full-scale individual assessment, which usually entails personality instruments, 360-degree feedback assessment, and an in-depth interview ($600 to about $10 000 depending on methodology, leadership level being assessed, and so on). Single executive coaching session where the coach provides some form of developmental feedback either during or after the session ($200 to $10 000 depending on coach, tools, process used). Attending a formal assessment center ($4000 to $30 000 per individual depending on how extensive the approach is, leadership level being assessed, and so on). Full-scale coaching engagement ($10 000 to $100 000 or more depending on the coach, length of engagement and level of the individual leader being coached – for example, CEO-level coaches are quite expensive).

Of course these are not the only types of development experiences available to leaders (others might include job rotations, participation in special task forces or teams, international assignments, secondment programs with other organizations, and so on); however, they are generally the ones that an individual can self-initiate and that include some form of assessment component. It should also be noted, however, that even if the motivation to develop oneself is present, there is still the issue of the costs involved (and whether these are carried by the organization or the individual him or herself). This is where cultural and resource moderators are important. In organizations where the leadership and culture are supportive of development and tools and support mechanisms are provided, the cost factor is often less of an issue. When the individual is not supported, however, the confluence of motivation and career aspirations will dictate how much the individual is willing to spend of his or her own resources to engage in development activities. Feedback delivery mechanisms The next factor to consider in the assessment process is the nature of the results themselves and the method or mechanism by which they will

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need to be delivered. As might be expected from the range of assessments described above, there is a high degree of variability in this area as well. Some personality assessments, for example, require the completion of a formal certification process (on the part of the feedback provider, not the individual leader taking the test) before the results can be delivered. This can make the process more complex (for example, if the leader has to find someone with the appropriate certification for a given tool) and costly, depending on the method selected. Similarly, assessment centers are much more expensive because of the high degree of rigor involved in the process (for example, usually having trained observers involved, physical space to run the simulations, and custom development and/ or assessment summaries written up about the results). There is also a time component as well, for example, some tools can be administered and scored immediately following completion, while other approaches require time for synthesis and integration (particularly in the cases where multiple measures are employed at the same time such as combining a personality assessment with a 360 feedback measurement). The quality and quantity of the assessment feedback provided will vary based on these variables. The other aspect of feedback delivery to consider is the importance of having a formally trained or certified feedback provider. While most assessment tools will provide a report of some sort that highlights strengths and development areas for the individual, in our experience few leaders have been trained to be able to interpret these types of results effectively. Although this is particularly true with personality measures (hence the certification requirement by many test vendors to even be able to sell the assessments), it is also true with managers receiving 360 feedback reports and other behavioral assessments. Being able to interpret a 360 feedback report and understand the nuances between the self-ratings and ratings from peers, direct reports, managers and sometimes even clients is not always easy (Church and Waclawski, 1998). It requires experience with these types of tools to be able to make the best use of the results. Although having an individual provide the leader with the feedback results increases the overall cost of the assessment process, it is absolutely worth the additional investment from a developmental standpoint. Even peer to peer results sharing is often more engaging and results in better insights being generated than just an individual reviewing his or her results alone. However, this typically requires a more formal leadership development program or setting to ensure the appropriate context and guardrails are in place. It is unlikely that many individuals who self-initiate an assessment will want to share their own results with a colleague who is not engaged in the same process.

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43

Reactions to feedback The third and final aspect to consider in the assessment and feedback phase is the nature of individual reactions to feedback. One of the most fundamental aspects of effective assessment and feedback is the psychological and interpersonal processes by which individuals come to understand, accept and ultimately use the assessment results for their personal growth and development (Church et al., 2002a). Even if self-initiated (and for development only versus decision making as in some organizations), the very process of being assessed can produce fear and anxiety in the mind of the individual. This aspect needs to be recognized and addressed for the results to be used for meaningful development planning. In general, and regardless of the content of the assessment or the method of delivery of the results, most individuals process feedback results according to the simple SARAH model. Based on the classic Kubler-Ross (1969) model of the five stages of grieving, SARAH is defined as the cycling through of: ●









Shock – at the results themselves and what they might reveal (particularly with personality measures which can be some of the most unsettling of assessment measures). Anger – at being assessed in the first place and the implications of the results (for the self-directed assessment this can be a case of ‘be careful what you wish for’). Rejection – that the data is not accurate or the test is invalid (many people never get past this stage, particularly without a trained feedback provider, coach or development program setting). Acceptance – this means coming to terms with the results and what they indicate about strengths and more importantly development areas (this is often linked to the level of executive maturity in a leader and is critical for development planning). Hope – that future efforts and actions can be done to drive positive change, growth and development.

Although many people are naturally intuitive and self-aware, and therefore can make effective use of the assessment results, there is a large percentage of leaders and managers who are less adept in this area and who may require assistance to work through these stages. Again this is where the nature of the assessment and the delivery mechanism intersect to ensure a quality development process. From a self-directed individual perspective, then, it is important that the right assessment measure be selected and the appropriate feedback process be included as part of the process. Begrudging adopters, resisters, renegades and first timers all may have a particularly difficult time working through these issues (given their

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disposition or total lack of knowledge). Feedback junkies, on the other hand, are the least likely to have issues, probably because feedback seeking and feedback acceptance are related constructs. The other consideration here relative to reactions to feedback is how the results of the assessment will be used by the organization (if at all). In the 360 feedback literature there is a long history of what has been termed ‘the great debate’ between using that type of data for development only versus decision making (e.g., London, 2001). From the context of the individual electing to have an assessment conducted, there will be very real and significant differences in the type of tool identified and the process used (for example, external versus leveraging an existing internal process if one is provided by the organization) based on who will have access to the results delivered and how they will be used. Although assessment centers have been largely decision-making vehicles since their inception (Thornton and Byham, 1982), tools such as 360 feedback and personality measures began as developmental assessments and have only recently entered the decision-making arena in organizations (Bracken et al., 2001). Thus, it is important that the individual initiating the assessment process be crystal clear as to how widely the results will be shared, with whom, and under what circumstances. Often a simple indicator here is who gets to see the feedback report – for example, the recipient only or others as well. Even then, though, you can’t be too certain. Many organizations, for example, use 360 feedback in succession planning discussions (Silzer and Church, 2010) so in those situations it might be more prudent for an individual to use an external vendor for their own development assessment (unless they want to have their data shared). This is one of the potential downsides to utilizing tools and processes offered by organizations as sometimes they are not for developmental purposes only. Similarly, many formal leadership programs in corporations serve the dual purpose of providing development, but also allowing senior leadership to make an assessment and determination of the future potential of each of the attendees. Even individual coaching engagements need to be carefully contracted up front regarding the sharing of insights and the outcome of the observations and assessment made by the coach. Phase III: Planning for Development The third phase of the individual feedback development and change model is comprised of the actual planning for development. As the demand for a leader’s time and attention continues to increase, leaders too often perceive that participating in a self-assessment and development opportunity may take away valuable time from their daily job duties. Certainly, the tasks

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of communicating to and inviting raters (as in the 360 feedback process), completing self-assessment inventories (particularly those with 300 or more questions), attending training to understand the results, and so on can take time, not to mention time that might be required to register for a program, seek funding approval for the program, and so forth. It is no wonder then that for many leaders, receiving the feedback report is the end of the road – that is, the final deliverable in the (perceived) ‘long’ process of invitations, deadlines and surveys. In actuality, however, receiving feedback is just the beginning of the development journey. Once an individual receives his or her feedback and understands how to interpret it, the next phase in the process is to integrate the disparate pieces of data to gain valuable insights for development, and turning those insights into action plans. This is one of the most critical and complex phases in the process. If not done, and done well, meaningful change rarely occurs. From data to insights to action Assessment vendors and providers recognize the importance of turning data into action. No longer is it a business differentiator as it was in the 1990s to merely have web-based assessment instruments and automated feedback reports. Providers that lead today’s assessment and development industry are those that have resources to aid the leader in identifying insights into the data, and help identify specific targeted actions to take from the feedback. Some vendors use complex algorithms in their feedback reports to identify strengths and areas of opportunity. Still others use trained or certified specialists to write each feedback report manually, usually in instances where results from multiple measures need to be synthesized to tell a holistic story. The main advantages of providing the leader with insights into the data are that it helps jumpstart the individual’s analysis of the feedback and provides an ‘outsider’s’ opinion of the results, which is particularly helpful when multiple assessment measures are used. It can also accelerate the action planning process, as many leaders easily get seduced into ‘analysis paralysis’ of the data without some direction of how to move forward (Church and Waclawski, 2001). However, we believe that leaders should be cautious about assessment processes that over-prescribe the insights and actions for the feedback recipient. There are three advantages to requiring the individual to at least somewhat review, reflect on, and analyze their own data: (a) it helps them hone their analytical skills; (b) it helps develop their self-awareness if they have done the actual introspective work; and (c) it creates ownership and accountability for their results (which is critical for actually doing something with them). We also believe that an organization’s strategy towards

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leadership development should be one of enablement, that is, teach leaders to fish versus giving them the fish. When it comes to assessment, the balance between providing ‘the answers’ versus letting them ‘fish’ for them is a delicate one, given the leaders’ demand for time. If taken to the extremes, it can become either a fishing expedition or shooting in a barrel. Neither option builds capability or ownership. Resources to the rescue While organizations attempt to measure a variety of aspects of a leader’s behavior and performance, leaders participating in self-assessment and development opportunities find themselves overwhelmed with a variety of disparate assessment feedback. The variety of assessment tools and options described earlier is all too often part of a growing suite of instruments of which individuals are being asked to partake. While advantageous to measure a broad range of the leader’s behavior and performance, it all too often comes across as an overwhelming amount of feedback, with no underlying framework to tie the disparate pieces together. From an individual development perspective more data is indeed better, but more data is also more complex. The bundling of a 360 feedback measure along with a cognitive abilities test, a motives and values measure, and a personality assessment suite is a classic example of this type of practice. It results in radically different types of data with little integration points on its own. In these cases, individuals are left to rely on their cognitive capacity and learning ability to make sense of the data. Typically first timers don’t have the knowledge to proceed, and begrudging adopters, resisters and renegades don’t have the motivation to even try. Again, only feedback junkies and good soldiers will get value from the data in this context. In response to these concerns, some organizations (typically, those with a feedback and development orientated culture) provide a variety of tools and resources to help individuals gain insights into their data. We typically see three broad categories of assistance: (1) integration frameworks – to help leaders conceptualize how all the different data components fit together; (2) tools for insights – to help them gain meaningful insights into their results; and (3) resources for development planning – to help them delve deeper into their insights and determine what to do about them. We will describe each of these in more detail below. 1. Integration frameworks While organizations often craft their own internal frameworks that fit their own culture and strategy, there are two integrating models that are particularly useful and have been adapted widely. The first is the employee–customer–profit chain model (Rucci et al., 1998). Originally, the model was used to demonstrate how employee

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Business & People Results

What You Do – Performance

Observed Behaviors

How You Do It – 360º Feedback

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Water Line

Personality

Figure 1.3

Why You Do It – Personality

Sample iceberg model of personality

attitudes impact customer attitudes, which in turn impact business performance. Over the last decade a number of organizations have extended the model to include leadership behavior; that is, to show how a leader’s behaviors (via competencies, derailment factors, personality traits, and so on) influence his or her workgroup’s behavior and levels of employee engagement (via climate and engagement surveys), which in turn impact customer and business outcomes. The advantage of using a model such as this for interpreting individual assessment results is that it provides leaders with an understanding of how their behavior has direct and indirect influence on the business performance of the group. It also helps individuals understand how each piece of feedback relates to another, which in turn helps them begin to integrate the data in a more holistic manner. The other model widely used for integrating different data sets is an adaptation of Freud’s iceberg model of personality structure (Hall, 1961, p. 54; Lucia and Lepsinger, 1999). This model is particularly helpful in describing how assessments that measure a leader’s more deep-seated dispositions, values and motives have an influence (or drive) the leader’s behaviors (that is, things ‘above the water line’). At PepsiCo this model is used as part of a certification workshop for feedback facilitators that helps integrate the use of the Hogan Assessment Suite along with an internally developed 360 feedback process (see Figure 1.3). 2. Tools for insights After frameworks for understanding data come tools that help deliver important insights from the data. Tools can take a variety of forms, and the most progressive companies offer a variety to

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account for the variance in individual capability and learning styles to turn data into action. Probably the most popular and least costly tool is group session-based training – which entails the HR specialist taking a group of leaders through the feedback report(s) to ensure understanding and proper interpretation, how to analyze their data, and how to plan for action. The advantage to a training approach is that leaders can get their specific questions answered in real time, and HR can monitor who has gone through the training and who hasn’t. The potential downside to this approach is that individuals are not given unique attention to their own specific results (unless that’s formalized as part of the process). This is why some companies use either internal or external one-on-one feedback sessions with leaders and certified facilitators or even executive coaches to truly get to insights and action plans. Of course these are more costly and time-intensive interventions than group sessions or other methods. Some companies have taken this concept online as well, providing a self-paced or self-directed learning approach. PepsiCo, for example, has developed an online module for gaining insights out of organizational survey data and action planning, using the acronym THINK: ● ● ● ● ●

The Task is to understand your report Create Hypotheses based on what you need to know Identify the Insights (test your hypotheses) Develop New Ideas for communicating and action planning Make sure you have the right Key Performance Indicators.

Other types of tools available focus on the action planning process itself. The simplest of these are action planning templates that require the leader to think through the specifics of actions to be taken – for example, steps to be taken, resources involved, key milestones, required funding/approval, and success indicators. Of course for those leaders who are engaging in development initiatives outside an organizational context (or where there is limited internal support and resources) the degree to which an assessment vendor or provider can provide these types of tools and online resources is critical to consider when making a selection. 3. Resources for development planning In addition to tools to help structure the data, insights and action planning process, there are a variety of internal and external resources available to help the leader identify areas for intervention and guide them through the necessary steps. As noted above, and often the only source of support for self-funded individuals, development resource guides such as The Leadership Machine (Lombardo and Eichinger, 2002) the Successful Manager’s Handbook (Personnel

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Decisions International Corporation, 2004) and For Your Improvement (Lombardo and Eichinger, 1998) provide on-the-job ‘active learning’ tips, lists of relevant books and articles, and external development program offerings centered around specific competencies or development areas. Many organizations have also internalized this concept, providing a similar suite of resources around their own specific competency models, and incorporating their own internal leadership development offerings, development tools, action planning templates and e-learning modules. The role of the coach As noted earlier, coaches are another useful resource that is potentially available to assist leaders going through an assessment process. Some organizations provide and pay for coaches as part of their leadership development program while in other cases, coaches must be identified outside the formal system (particularly given the nature of the data inherent in the assessment process). Organizations such as IBM, Bank of America, and PepsiCo have formalized the use of coaches as an instrumental part of the process in helping the leader prepare for and execute development plans. Given the relatively high cost of utilizing external coaches, however, and the resource intensiveness required of leveraging internal coaches instead, this option is usually reserved for the most senior of executives or high potential talent pools. However, coaches can serve five critical roles in the leadership development process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

assist the leader in interpreting and gaining insights from the assessment data work with the leader to identify the critical insights coming out of the feedback ensure that the leader creates an appropriate action plan coach and guide the leader through development challenges hold the leader accountable for making timely progress towards his or her development goals.

Organizations are recognizing the importance of coaching in this process and implementing what we would call ‘smart coaching’ – that is, the surgical application of coaching when and where it’s most needed (Valerio and Lee, 2005). Phase IV: Taking Action As critical as the planning for action phase is, even the most insightful analysis of feedback and carefully crafted action plans are pointless if they

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don’t result in meaningful positive change in leader behavior. This next major phase in the individual feedback development and change model is all about taking action from the insights and plans prepared in the previous phase. If some leaders fall short in the previous (preparation) phase, others fall even shorter in this (execution) phase. Unfortunately, many leaders who go through a self-assessment and development effort fail to realize that the mere act of going through a self-assessment process sets expectations among others (particularly those that have provided feedback) for meaningful behavior change. In other words, the simple act of asking questions (or collecting feedback) alone from anyone (including the self) raises the expectations that some action will be taken. As a result, not acting on or visibly demonstrating the action taken from such a process can have detrimental effects on subsequent perceptions of the individual, and of future development efforts for that individual. Church and Oliver (2006), for example, demonstrated that taking action yields more favorable perceptions of employee satisfaction in subsequent surveys than not taking action at all, or sharing results but doing nothing with them. What does taking action look like? The term ‘action’ here stems from the Latin term agere which means ‘to do’. Taking action means doing something as a result of the assessment feedback. This can translate into several concepts including: (a) doing more of something effective; (b) doing less of something ineffective; or (c) doing something different from before. The critical component of the taking action phase of the model is defining specifically what this action will be. This is why the action plan format as discussed in the previous phase is integral to success in any change effort. A good action plan should answer the following questions: ●



● ● ●

What specific action will be taken (for example, ‘Communicate better’ is too vague; ‘Meeting with my direct reports each week to discuss sales targets’ is better)? By whom should the action be taken (for example, the leader is typically assumed to be the focal person here, but quite often others may need to be involved, as described below)? When/how often should the action be expected (for example, ‘each week for one hour’)? What are the expected results of the action (for example, ‘increased clarity among the team regarding sales targets and sales strategy’)? What are the supporting (and restraining) forces that will help (and hinder) the intended action (for example, restraining forces include

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client meetings and leadership team meetings that take precedence; supporting forces include inviting my manager to the meetings to help create awareness and support)? As with the other phases of the model described above, individuals vary greatly in their ability to succeed effectively in this phase. Generally, leaders must have all three individual characteristics described previously to succeed in this phase – personality disposition, learning ability and career aspirations. However, we have found that personality dispositions and motivation to develop oneself quite often are the main determinants of success. Traits such as conscientiousness, openness to experience, and courage (see also Siebert et al.’s, 1999, concept of proactive personality) all play a role in a leader’s ability to guide themselves successfully through a change effort. One can easily see the linkages between these dispositions and taking action when examining what change entails – namely, publicly sharing one’s intent to change, and then attempting new ways of doing things. Of course it goes without saying that feedback junkies are more likely to be effective at this phase than others, though there are individuals who perpetually want the feedback but continue to do nothing with it. Tools and processes that support taking action While individual characteristics are a critical determinant of success, organizations typically employ tools and processes to embed hard and soft support and accountability mechanisms into the design of the assessment and development process as well. These mechanisms help ensure the individual accomplishes his or her individually identified development goals. Soft mechanisms include the support of the individual’s manager, team, and perhaps his or her HR practitioner. Manager support is critical to allow the individual time to develop a new repertoire of behavior. Manager support is also sometimes required to provide the individual with stretch assignments or new job duties to help develop a specific capability. Team support is also needed to give the individual the flexibility that one needs to develop a new capability. HR support can be helpful in ensuring that ‘old tapes’ following development and behavior change are not being played by the organization (that is, that others look beyond past experiences). Hard mechanisms include linking the assessment and development process, and action planning follow-through efforts, to internal systems such as performance management and individual development plans (IDPs). As mentioned in Phase I, the individual going through the assessment should know up front if the results will be hard linked to any performance management or formal IDP systems. In many organizations,

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the extent to which one ties assessment results to hard mechanisms is still a manual process rather than a formal, automated one. Still, merging the results of the assessment and intended action plans into systems such as the formal IDP (or as noted earlier, the CDAP at PepsiCo) helps to create accountability and a sense of urgency to take action. The good news for individuals self-initiating assessment and development initiatives is that these mechanisms are relatively easy to implement even if the organization doesn’t have the formal tools and processes in place or if the culture does not support taking action. Most contemporary performance management systems involve some opportunity for the individual to list their goals for the year – either performance-based or developmental in nature. This provides the individual with an opportunity to include the actions and goals listed in their action plan, and ‘formalizes’ them by getting manager alignment and approval. In some systems, HR is also involved in the process as is the manager at the next level up. In short, the greater the level of accountability for taking action in this phase (and the more integrated the approach), the more likely is it that action will be taken. Phase V: Measuring Change Leaders who have gone through all of the previously described phases, that is, electing to engage in development, conducting the assessment and receiving the feedback, planning for development, and taking action – should feel pretty good about overcoming a variety of individual and organization obstacles. With that said, how does one know if the change effort has been successful? This last phase in the feedback and development model focuses on measuring change to determine if the leader’s development goals have actually been achieved. Resistance to change It goes without saying that change does not come easily. Just as anyone who has had a New Year’s resolution or tried a fad diet can attest, the intent or motivation to change doesn’t necessarily mean that change will indeed occur (even if the action plan was well executed). In a similar vein, a leader who religiously implements an action plan is likely to meet his or her change goals, but results may not be as fast or as apparent as expected. There are a variety of individual and cultural forces that pull for the status quo (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1979). Individually, humans possess a strong natural bias in favor of perpetuating the status quo (Saad, 2007). It evolved as a survival tactic and is a powerful force hindering behavioral change – even if it is a positive one. Culturally, organizations that do

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not have an orientation for development will hinder a leader’s efforts to change. As mentioned in the beginning of the chapter, even when development support is espoused by senior leadership, it may not be an underlying belief that drives systems, policies and processes. For example, some of the large consultancies espouse the importance of personal development, but then set utilization targets so high that development is prohibitive (that is, the ratio of the percentage of time an individual must spend during the work week on ‘billable hours’ to a client on a project versus working on other internally focused activities such as time and experience reports, knowledge management sharing, training, or even employee appraisals). No wonder the book Consulting Demons (Pinault, 2000) was so intriguing to many practitioners upon its release. Methods for measuring change In general, there are a variety of ways that a leader can determine if their intended change has occurred. Borrowing from Kirkpatrick’s (1959; 1994) four levels of training evaluation, these can be summarized as follows: ●



Level 1 – Reaction. This entails the leader simply asking him or herself if they think development has occurred. The advantages to this approach are that it is immediate – that is, if the leader thinks change has occurred, then quite often he or she could be right. However, this assumes that the leader is focusing on the right cues in his or her environment, and drawing the correct inferences from those cues. As you can imagine, first timers, begrudging adopters, resistors and renegades typically find this approach challenging at best and useless at worst. Level 2 – Learning. This typically entails re-testing on some of the same instruments initially used in the assessment, or similar instruments that measure the same construct so that change can be demonstrated quantitatively (although this has some challenges, as discussed below). Another, less commonly used approach is to go through a simulation to determine if the desired capability has been developed sufficiently. The advantage to this approach is that precise change over time can be seen since the same measure is being used in both instances. The disadvantage is that it does not provide an indication as to whether the change in the instrument scores actually yielded a positive impact in the leader’s job performance. Typically, this approach is used for assessments measuring personality, cognitive ability, or functional/technical proficiency (for example, financial acumen).

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Level 3 – Transfer. This entails measuring if the desired change is actually exhibited behaviorally on the job. This can mean conducting a 360-degree assessment focused on the development areas (or resurveying if a 360-degree measure was used in the initial assessment process), or less commonly but just as effective is to have a trained observer (often a coach) shadow the individual and assess their on-the-job behavior. The advantages to this approach are that it is rigorous and ensures that the desired changes are positively impacting behavior at work. The disadvantage is that no matter what the method chosen (for example, surveys or observation), it can be rather disruptive to those involved in the process. Level 4 – Results. This last and most sophisticated approach to evaluation entails determining if specific business outcomes have been positively affected by the development effort. These vary by the nature and level of the role but can include sales revenue, quality measures, staff turnover, customer satisfaction ratings, employee engagement and/or climate ratings, and so on. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is often a challenge to link such measures to an individual’s change efforts (in fact, the less control an individual has over the measure, the less likelihood of influencing it). However, the positive here is that such a linkage is not only of the utmost interest to the leader (typically this is why they are interested in changing in the first place), but it also helps to justify the business value of the time and resource investment in the assessment process.

Potential issues in measuring change Measuring individual development and change is a complex effort. In general, there are a variety of potential issues or considerations that one should be mindful of when measuring change: 1.

2.

Change is easier to observe for some areas than others. For example, personality is considered relatively stable and thus more difficult to change; conversely, functional knowledge or skill is more easily acquired. Therefore, one should consider what is being targeted for the change effort when determining how to measure progress. Time interval to expect results varies. It is often a challenge to know when to follow up to see if an individual’s development and change efforts have been successful. The answer is determined not only by the area being developed (per above), but also by other factors such as the pace of change in the individual’s job, the individual’s tenure with the company, and so on.

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3.

55

The change may not be solely or even partially due to the individual’s efforts. Depending on what indicators are being used to measure change, sometimes change measures are influenced by extraneous factors. For example, a leader using his workgroup’s employee engagement survey scores as a measure of his ability to motivate his team may find that engagement scores increase or decrease simply because the economy has shifted.

Just as some (for example, resistors and renegades) believe that merely receiving the feedback is the end of the road, even the most well-intended leaders (for example, good soldiers and feedback junkies) fail to consider this last phase of measuring change. However, it plays the vital role of a continuous feedback loop in much the same way as any other OD intervention needs to evaluate its efforts to ensure it reaches the desired goal state. Unfortunately, the evaluation phase is often a challenge in the field of OD as well (for example, Church, 2003; Martineau and Preskill, 2002).

QUESTIONS THAT REMAIN Throughout this chapter we have attempted to define the process by which individuals initiate, assess and receive feedback, develop targeted action plans, take action on the results, and assess the outcomes of their efforts in the interest of their own development. Whether reinforced and formally supported by an organization’s leaders and internal processes and programs, or completely self-directed and funded at the individual leader level, the process by which assessments are conducted, feedback is used for planning purposes and action is taken (or not) is the same. That said, there remain a few important questions regarding self-assessment and leadership development. First, how much can an individual truly change and develop on their own? While we have attempted to straddle the line in this chapter between selfdirected development and organizational and management mandated agendas, or at a minimum simply the provision of tools and resources, what is the true individual capacity for change? Unique levels of motivation, cognitive and learning capability, and career aspirations will certainly be a moderating component in answering this question (that is, there is a contingent of individuals, and at this point in time many would say Millennials fall into this category, that will stop at nothing to continue broadening their own horizons), but in the end how much is the average leader willing to go above and beyond for their own development at the broadest of levels? One of the tenets of Western culture is mandated

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education for a fixed number of years. Students go to school and learn because it is a requirement. Similarly, organizations that have very formal and complex leadership development agendas select their high potentials and require them to follow a prescriptive learning path. What about the rest of the leaders in an organization? If high potentials make up only 10 percent of a given talent pool (e.g., Silzer and Church, forthcoming) what are the opportunities for the remaining 90 percent to develop? If it is all self-directed and self-funded then that would suggest a real breakdown in the development agenda for most corporations and perhaps for Western society in general. We would like to see research directed at how much and how far individuals can go on their own. Second, based on our experience, there are many leaders who simply don’t understand the need for feedback and development. That is, they do not have the foresight to see the need for increasing their own personal self-awareness and capabilities. In short, they don’t know what they don’t know, and they don’t know that they should know. The question here is how to get the clueless to realize they are indeed so clueless? Leaders who are high in feedback-seeking behaviors are not the problem – research has shown that they will engage in assessment and development efforts, and are likely to benefit from them depending on their goal orientation (Janssen and Prins, 2007). Even the good soldiers and begrudging adopters are fine here. These most troubling individuals are usually the resisters and the renegades in the leadership development arena. We truly wonder whether it is ever possible to break through to these individuals and show them the need, value and utility of assessment and development. Finally, our third question is more individualistic in nature. Having seen many leaders and managers engage in assessment and development activities, the question often is how accurate is my own self-assessment of my behavior? While the comparison between self ratings and those of other coworkers is a cornerstone of 360 feedback programs, often individuals have a tendency to want to believe their own internal assessments over other perspectives. This is part of the SARAH model described above, and as noted, many leaders end at the rejection phase and do not move forward to development planning. While some self-assessment tools such as personality measures have been designed to reduce or eliminate self-ratings bias, it is almost impossible to do so in behaviorally-based assessments such as 360 measures. We would like to see more research into the process of self-ratings and the acceptance of those ratings. We’d also like to see more research on the accuracy of self versus other ratings. It is assumed that others’ ratings of a leader are unbiased, and the self, if different from other’s ratings, are in fact the biased assessments. However, is this always true? Are there certain capabilities or situations where the self actually knows thyself the best?

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SUMMARY The field of leadership development is both broad and deep. With this chapter we have attempted to contribute to the literature by focusing on the individual’s perspective to initiating and engaging in a data-based assessment and development journey. Rather than focus on models of leadership or singular methods for development we have taken the reverse route, that is, to explore an OD-based process by which data and feedback (from whatever source) is used to unfreeze a leader from his or her current state and drive positive development, growth and change. We have also highlighted the importance of individual characteristics, the tools and resources available, and the cultural and leadership-based moderating variables in the process of individuals seeking development, as well as the wide range of development options available. In the end, a leader’s selection of a developmental assessment and action planning program must be made with clear attention and self reflection to what is being developed, to what end, with what assessment tool(s), within what context of the data being used, via what delivery mechanism, and fundamentally with what accountability for change. This is never, and should never be, a quick and easy decision, but one based on thoughtful planning, reflection and with an eye to the future.

NOTE 1. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of David H. Oliver and Erica I. Desrosiers to the framework described in this chapter.

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Bracken, D.W., Timmreck, CW., and Church, A.H. (eds) (2001), The Handbook of Multisource Feedback: The Comprehensive Resource for Designing and Implementing MSF Processes, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Burke, W.W. (1982), Organization Development: Principles and Practices, Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Burke, W.W. (1994), Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing, 2nd edn, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Burke, W.W. and Jackson, P. (1991), ‘Making the SmithKline Beecham merger work’, Human Resource Management, 30, 69–87. Burke, W.W. and Litwin, G.H. (1992), ‘A causal model of organizational performance and change’, Journal of Management, 18, 523–45. Burke, W.W. and Noumair, D.A. (2002), ‘The role of personality assessment in organization development’, in J. Waclawski, and A.H. Church (eds), Organization Development: A data-driven approach to organizational change, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 55–77. Byham, W.C., Smith, A.B. and Paese, M.J. (2002), Grow your Own Leaders, Pittsburg, PA: DDI Press. Charan, R., Drotter, S. and Noel, J. (2001), The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership Powered Company, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc. Cheung-Judge, M. (2001), ‘The self as an instrument: a cornerstone for the future of OD’, OD Practitioner, 33(3), 11–16. Chiaburu, D.S., Baker, V.L., and Pitariu, A.H. (2006), ‘Beyond being proactive: What (else) matters for career self-management behaviors’, Career Development International, 11(7), 619–32. Church, A.H. (1997), ‘Managerial self-awareness in high performing individuals in organizations’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 281–92. Church, A.H. (2003), ‘Organization development’, in J.E. Edwards, J.C. Scott and N.S. Raju (eds), The Human Resources Program-Evaluation Handbook, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 322–42. Church, A.H. and Herena, M.R. (2003), ‘The PepsiCo HR career framework: a data-driven approach to career development’, Organization Development Practitioner, 35(4), 27–33. Church, A.H. and Oliver, D.H. (2006), ‘The importance of taking action, not just sharing survey feedback’, in A. Kraut (ed.), Getting Action from Organizational Surveys: New Concepts, Technologies and Applications, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 102–130. Church, A.H. and Waclawski, J. (1998), ‘Making multirater feedback systems work’, Quality Progress, 31(4), 81–9. Church, A.H. and Waclawski, J. (2001), Designing and Using Organizational Surveys: A Seven Step Process, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Church, A.H. and Waclawski, J. (forthcoming), ‘Take the Pepsi challenge: talent development at PepsiCo’, in R.F. Silzer and B.E. Dowell (eds), Strategy-Driven Talent management: A Leadership Imperative, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Church, A.H., Waclawski, J. and Burke, W.W. (2001), ‘Multisource feedback for organization development and change’, in D.W. Bracken, C.W. Timmreck and A.H. Church (eds), The Handbook of Multisource Feedback: The Comprehensive Resource for Designing and Implementing MSF Processes, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass pp. 301–17. Church, A.H., Walker, A.G. and Brockner, J. (2002a), ‘Multisource feedback for organization development and change,’ in J. Waclawski, and A.H. Church (eds),

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Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying, New York: Macmillan. Lepsinger, R. and Lucia, AD. (1997), The Art and Science of 360º Feedback, San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer/Jossey-Bass. Lewin, K. (1946), ‘Action research and minority problems’, Journal of Social Issues, 2, 34–46. Lombardo, M.M. and Eichinger, R.W. (1998), For your Improvement: A Development and Coaching Guide, Minneapolis, MN: Lominger Limited. Lombardo, M.M. and Eichinger, R.W. (2000), ‘High potentials as high learners’, Human Resource Management, 39(4), 321–9. Lombardo, M.M. and Eichinger, R.W. (2002), The Leadership Machine, Minneapolis, MN: Lominger Limited. London, M. (1997), Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. London, M. (2001), ‘The great debate: Should 360 be used for administration or development only?’, in D.W. Bracken, C.W. Timmreck and A.H. Church (eds), The Handbook of Multisource Feedback, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 368–85. London, M. and Beatty, R.W. (1993), ‘360-degree feedback as a competitive advantage’, Human Resource Management, 32(2&3), 353–72. London, M. and Smither, J.W. (1999), ‘Career-related continuous learning: defining the construct and mapping the process’, in G.R. Ferris (ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Vol. 17, San Diego, CA: JAI Press, pp. 81–121. Lucia, A.D. and Lepsinger, R. (1999), The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations, San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Marquardt, M.J. (1999), Action Learning in Action: Transforming World Problems and People for World-class Organizational Learning, Palo Alto, CA: DaviesBlack. Marsick, V.J., O’Neil, J. and Watkins, K.E. (2002), ‘Action learning’ in J. Waclawski and A.H. Church (eds), Organization Development: A Data Driven Approach to Organizational Change, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 177–202. Martineau, J.W. and Preskill, H. (2002), ‘Evaluating the impact of organization development interventions’, in J. Waclawski and A.H. Church (eds), Organization Development: A Data-driven Approach to Organizational Change, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 286–301. McCall, M.W., Jr., (1998), High Flyers: Developing the Next Generation of Leaders, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. McClelland, D. (1961), The Achieving Society, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand. Mills, E. (2007), ‘Meet Google’s new culture zar’, CNET News, available at http:// news.cnet.com/Meet-Googles-culture-czar/2008-1023_3-6179897.html. Personnel Decisions International Corporation (2004), Successful Manager’s Handbook, 7th edn, Minneapolis, MN: Personnel Decisions International Corporation. Pinault, L. (2000), Consulting Demons: Inside the Unscrupulous World of Global Corporate Consulting, New York: HarperBusiness. Rucci, A.J., Kirn, S.P. and Quinn, R.T. (1998), ‘The employee–customer profit chain at Sears’, Harvard Business Review, 76(1), 83–97. Saad, G. (2007), The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption, Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press.

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2.

Inspiring the development of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in managers Richard E. Boyatzis, Tony Lingham and Angela Passarelli

Leadership educators must ask themselves two fundamental questions when designing developmental programs. First, what competencies make leaders effective (that is, what do we want our students to learn)? Second, how can we inspire students to develop them? Successful leadership development courses in management education need to address these two questions in a way that promotes shared responsibility between educators and students. Such courses need to be designed around theoretical frameworks that lead to meaningful and sustained adult change and development. The first segment of this chapter discusses the competencies that distinguish outstanding leaders from average leaders, managers and professionals – answering the what question above. Intentional Change Theory (ICT) is explained in the second segment, as the central theoretical framework to inspire self-development in MBAs through the Leadership Assessment and Development Course (LEAD). Specific examples of how these competencies are developed within the MBA program are then described. In the third segment, results from 22 years of longitudinal assessment of learning outcomes related to competency development in a full-time MBA program show that MBAs can change in ways that are essential to effective leadership and management.

COMPETENCIES AS THE FOCUS OF SELF-MANAGED DEVELOPMENT It could be said that developing human talent breaks down into three categories: acquiring knowledge, learning to use that knowledge effectively, and 62

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discovering why one is driven to use one’s knowledge and competencies. Leaders on a journey of self-development must undergo all three. Knowledge. Acquiring knowledge means developing the functional, declarative, procedural and meta-cognitive knowledge needed to perform. Examples of these types of knowledge are, respectively, market segmentation for a new product, the time it takes a polymer to set, calculating the present value of a capital acquisition, and ethical principles as applied in international business transactions. These forms of knowledge are necessary but not sufficient for the leader, manager, or professional to add value to organizations. In this sense, knowledge bases are threshold talents (Boyatzis, 1982; 2008; Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Goleman, 1998). Competencies. To be an effective leader, manager or professional, a person needs the ability to use knowledge and to make things happen. These abilities can be called competencies, which Boyatzis (1982) defined as, ‘the underlying characteristics of a person that lead to or cause effective and outstanding performance’. A set of competencies have been shown empirically to cause or predict outstanding leader, manager, or professional performance in the literature (Bray et al., 1974; Boyatzis, 1982; 2008; in press; Kotter, 1982; Thornton and Byham, 1982; Luthans et al., 1988; Howard and Bray, 1988; Druskat et al., 2005; special issue of the Journal of Management Development in February, 2008 on ‘Competencies in the 21st Century’, and the special issue of the Journal of Management Development in April, 2009 on ‘Competencies in the EU’). Conceptual syntheses have also shown this relationship to effectiveness (Campbell et al., 1970; Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Goleman, 1998). Compiling these findings and summaries, it can be said that the important competencies fall into three clusters: (1) Cognitive intelligence competencies, such as systems thinking or pattern recognition; (2) Emotional intelligence competencies, such as adaptability, emotional self-control, emotional self-awareness, positive outlook, and achievement orientation; and (3) Social intelligence competencies, such as empathy, organizational awareness, inspirational leadership, influence, coaching and mentoring, conflict management, and teamwork. In addition, there are several cognitive capabilities that appear to be threshold competencies from the research cited above. That is, they are needed to be adequate in performance, but using more of them does not necessarily lead to outstanding or effective performance. Given research to date, these would include: knowledge (technical and functional); deductive reasoning; and quantitative reasoning. Drive. Beyond knowledge and competencies, the additional ingredient necessary to outstanding performance appears to be the desire to use one’s talent. This seems driven by a person’s values, philosophy, sense of calling or mission, unconscious motives and traits (Boyatzis and Sala,

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2004; Boyatzis, 2006). The motives and traits affect the way a person sees the world, especially the perception of opportunities and challenges they perceive in the environment (McClelland, 1985). But they are also persistent and generalized drivers. They arouse dispositional ways a person responds to his/her environment and create a focus for a person’s behavior (McClelland, 1985). These three domains of capability or talent (knowledge, competencies and motivational drivers) help us to understand what a person can do (knowledge), how a person can do it (competencies), and why a person feels the need to do it (values, motives, and unconscious dispositions). Our role in management education is to help people add value on each of these domains, to help them take charge of their own development toward greater effectiveness in their future jobs and careers.

INTENTIONAL CHANGE THEORY AS A MODEL FOR SELF-DIRECTED COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT What the studies referred to above have shown is that adults learn what they want to learn. Other things, even if acquired temporarily (for example, for a test), are soon forgotten (Specht and Sandlin, 1991). Students, children, patients, clients and subordinates may act as if they care about learning something, go through the motions, but they proceed to disregard it or forget it unless it is something that they want to learn. In this way, it appears that most, if not all, sustainable behavioral change is intentional. Intentional change is a desired change in an aspect of who you are (the Real) or who you want to be (the Ideal), or both. The process of intentional change is shown graphically in Figure 2.1 (Boyatzis and McKee, 2005; Boyatzis, 2006). Change is a discontinuous process for most people. That is, it goes through ‘fits and starts’ or surprises. While these are often experienced as a conscious revelation or epiphany, we can call them discoveries. In complexity theory, these moments are called experiences of emergence. Intentional Change Theory (ICT) describes the essential components and processes that encourage sustained, desired change to occur in a person’s behaviors, thoughts, feelings and/or perceptions (Boyatzis, 2006). The theory includes five phases or discontinuities, called ‘discoveries’ (Boyatzis, 2006; Goleman et al., 2002). The five phases include: (1) the Ideal Self, or Personal Vision; (2) the Real Self, or Personal Balance Sheet; (3) creation of a Learning Agenda and Plan; (4) Experimentation and Practice with new behaviors, thoughts or feelings outlined in the Learning

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Figure 2.1

#3: My Learning Agenda: Building on my Strengths while reducing Gaps Output: My Learning Agenda and Learning Plan

# 5: Resonant Relationships that help, support, & encourage each step in the process

Coaching

Coaching

My Weaknesses: Where my Ideal and Real Self Differ

My Strengths: Where my Ideal and Real Self overlap

#2: My Real Self: Who am I? Output: My Personal Balance

How Intentional Change Theory is incorporated into the LEAD course

#4: Experimenting with new behavior, thoughts, & feelings

Practicing the new behavior, building new neural pathways

Exit Assessment

#1: My Ideal Self: Who do I want to be? Output: My Personal Vision Essay

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Plan, and (5) Trusting Relationships that support a person’s development experience. The first discovery and potential starting point for the process of personal development is the discovery of an individual’s deepest aspirations for his or her life. This is his/her image of their Ideal Self. Three major components comprise the development of this image: (1) an image of a desired future; (2) hope that one can attain it; and (3) inclusion of one’s core identity, which serves as a foundation upon which to build the desired image (Boyatzis and Akrivou, 2006). The Ideal Self emerges from our ego ideal, dreams and aspirations. This is quite different from the ‘ought self’ in which others around the person impose their image of what the ideal should be (Boyatzis, 2006). The last twenty years have revealed literature supporting the power of positive imaging or visioning in sports psychology, meditation and biofeedback research, and other psycho-physiological research. It is believed that the potency of focusing one’s thoughts on the desired end state or condition is driven by the emotional components of the brain (Goleman, 1995; Boyatzis and McKee, 2005). This research indicates that we can access and engage deep emotional commitment, arousing neurogenesis and endocrine processes that allow for learning and openness to new experiences, people and feelings. A person’s awareness of their current self is often elusive. The Real Self, which is addressed by the Second Discovery, is the person that others see and with whom they interact. This discontinuity involves assessing one’s strengths and weaknesses and creating a Personal Balance Sheet as an outcome. Coming to grips with who we are (strengths and weaknesses) indicates a readiness to make the necessary changes to become the person we want to be. For normal reasons, the human psyche protects itself from the automatic ‘intake’ and conscious realization of all information about ourselves. These ego-defense mechanisms serve to protect us. They also conspire to delude us into an image of who we are that may feed on itself, become self-perpetuating, and possibly dysfunctional (Goleman, 1985). For a person to truly consider changing a part of him or herself, he or she should have a clear sense of what they value and want to keep. These areas in which the Real Self and Ideal Self are consistent or congruent can be considered Strengths. Likewise, to consider what you want to preserve about yourself involves admitting aspects of yourself that you wish to change or adjust in some manner. Areas where your Real Self and Ideal Self are inconsistent may be considered Gaps (that is, aspects considered weaknesses or things we wish to change). Self-assessment and 360-degree assessment instruments are examples of resources available and commonly

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used by coaches to stimulate reflection and encourage mindfulness as a person develops awareness of their current capabilities and limitations. All too often, people explore growth or development by focusing on the ‘gaps’ or deficiencies. Organization-based leadership training programs and managers conducting annual reviews often make the same mistake. There is an assumption that we can ‘leave well enough alone’ and get to the areas that need work. It is no wonder that many programs or procedures intended to help a person develop often result in the individual feeling battered, beleaguered and bruised, not helped, encouraged, motivated or guided. The third discontinuity in intentional change is development of a learning agenda, which encompasses the individual’s personal vision, learning goals and actions in support of those goals. It provides a framework to document a person’s desired future as well as the steps he or she chooses to take to create that desired future through the articulation of clear goals. A learning agenda is unique in that it places the focus more on the development process itself and less on discrete outcomes such as improved performance or greater fulfillment at work. It differs from a traditional development plan in that it ideally embodies a learning orientation rather than a performance orientation. A learning orientation arouses a positive belief in one’s capability and the hope of improvement. This encourages people to set personal standards of performance, rather than ‘normative’ standards that mimic what others have done or serve to meet an imposed goal. Contrary to a learning orientation, a performance orientation often evokes anxiety and doubts about whether or not change is possible or even desired (Chen et al., 2000). The fourth discovery includes experimentation and practice with desired changes. The essence of this stage is really about implementing the goals and action steps articulated in the prior discovery and taking risks to develop new behavioral ‘habits’. These behaviors become habits by practicing them beyond the point of comfort to the point of mastery. Experimentation and practice is most effective when it occurs in conditions in which the person feels safe (Kolb and Boyatzis, 1970). This sense of psychological safety creates an atmosphere in which the person can try new behaviors, perceptions and thoughts with relatively less risk of shame, embarrassment, or serious consequences of failure. It is often helpful if a person can find ways to leverage learning from current, or on-going experiences happening in their professional and/or personal life vs. creating an elaborate, new application. That is, the experimentation and practice can but usually does not need to involve formal learning such as attending training courses or creating a new project assignment. The process of translating practice into effective learning

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and developmental growth occurs by trying something new in the context of everyday work and life, extracting the best of what worked from the experience through reflection and committing to further experimentation. During this part of the process, intentional change looks and feels like a ‘continuous improvement’ process. The impact of experimentation and practice on development of one’s capabilities was empirically proven by Dreyfus (2008). She studied managers of scientists and engineers who were considered superior performers. After observing that the managers used considerably more of certain abilities than their less effective counterparts, she investigated how they developed some of those abilities. One of the distinguishing abilities was Group Management, also called Team Building. She found that many of these middle-aged managers had first experimented with team building skills in high school and college, in sports, clubs, and living groups. Later, when they became ‘bench scientists and engineers’ working on problems in relative isolation, they still pursued use and practicing of this ability in activities outside work. They practiced team building and group management in social and community organizations, such as community-based clubs to help youth, and professional associations in planning conferences and such. Our relationships are an essential part of our environment. The most crucial relationships often exist in groups that have particular importance to us. These relationships and groups give us a sense of identity, guide us as to what is appropriate and ‘good’ behavior, and provide feedback on our behavior. In sociology, they are called reference groups. These relationships create a ‘context’ within which we interpret our progress on desired changes, the utility of new learning, and even contribute significant input to formulation of the Ideal (Kram, 1996). Based on social identity groups, and now relational theories, our relationships both meditate and moderate our sense of who we are and who we want to be. We develop or elaborate on our Ideal Self from these contexts. We label and interpret our Real Self from these contexts. We interpret and value Strengths (that is, aspects considered our core that we wish to preserve) from these contexts. We also interpret and value Gaps (that is, aspects considered weaknesses or things we wish to change) from these contexts. In this sense, our relationships are mediators, moderators, interpreters, sources of feedback, sources of support and permission for the change and learning we seek. They may also be the most important source of protection from relapses or returning to our earlier forms of behavior. Wheeler (2008) analyzed the extent to which the MBA graduates worked on their goals in multiple ‘life spheres’ (that is, work, family, recreational groups,

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and so on). In a two-year follow-up study of two graduating classes of part-time MBA students, she found those who worked on their goals and plans in multiple sets of relationships improved the most and to a greater degree than those working on goals in only one setting, such as work or within one relationship. The process of experiencing sustained desired change is an iterative, cyclical process of ongoing development for most people most of the time. Using complexity theory, the process of development engages, in this case, the cycle of individual change, or the lack of it through two self-organizing properties of the human organism. Two attractors are the Positive Emotional Attractor (PEA) and the Negative Emotional Attractor (NEA), determining the context of the self-organizing process and whether it is an adaptation to existing conditions or an adaptation to new, emergent conditions. Intentional Change Theory offers an explanation as to how the disequilibrium occurs and suggests forces to drive new self-organizing systems. An attractor becomes the destabilizing force. We call this the Positive Emotional Attractor. It pulls the person toward their Ideal Self. In the process of focusing the person on future possibilities and filling them with hope, it arouses the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PSNS) (Boyatzis et al., 2006). Once the PSNS is aroused, the person has access to more of their neural circuits, finds themselves in a calmer, if not elated state in which their immune system is functioning well and their body is sustained. They are able, in this state, to experience neurogenesis (that is, the conversion of hippocampal stem cells into new neurons) and the new degrees and extent of learning that becomes possible. It is even suggested that formation of learning goals or learning oriented goals works from this attractor and results in more successful change (Boyatzis, 2006). But another attractor is also at play in the system – the Negative Emotional Attractor. In an analogous manner, it aroused the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) which helps the human to deal with stress and threat and protect itself. Within the threatened environment and state, the NEA pulls a person toward defensive protection. In this arousal, the body shunts blood to the large muscle groups, closes down non-essential neural circuits, suspends the immune system, and produces cortisol – important for protection under threat (Boyatzis et al., 2006). But cortisol inhibits or even stops neurogenesis and overexcites older neurons, rendering them useless (Boyatzis et al., 2006). If a person’s adaptation is self-organizing, then desired change not already part of this system is only possible when it is intentional. We would add because of the difficulty in sustaining the effort, it also must be driven by a powerful force. This is where the image of the Ideal Self

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activates the energy of the PEA, and the two attractors become ‘a limit cycle’ for the person. This also helps us to understand why there is a need for more positivity than negativity in change efforts (Fredrickson and Losada, 2005). In the studies of the impact of the year-long executive development program, Ballou et al. (1999) found that the program increased selfconfidence amongst doctors, lawyers, professors, engineers and other professionals. The finding was interesting because these professionals appeared, on the surface, to have high self-confidence already. How could any program increase it? The best explanation came from follow-up questions to the graduates of the program. The increase in self-confidence seemed to occur because the graduates had greater trust in their ability to change. Their existing reference groups (that is, family, groups at work, professional groups, community groups) all had an investment in them staying the same, whereas the person wanted to change. The Professional Fellows Program allowed them to develop a new reference group that created more ‘psychological space’ for change.

COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH INTENTIONAL CHANGE IN AN MBA PROGRAM At the Weatherhead School of Management, a leadership course was focused on developing the ‘whole person’ and was based on the underlying philosophy that adult sustainable behavioral change has to be intentional. The Leadership Assessment and Development (LEAD) course in the MBA curriculum is designed on the basis of Intentional Change Theory (ICT). The course has four benchmarks or outcomes: (1) a persona vision; (2) a personal balance sheet; (3) a coaching session with a specially trained professional coach; and (4) a learning agenda, as shown in Figure 2.1. For the first 18 years, the LEAD course was a semester long (15 weeks) to align with all other courses in the MBA curriculum. Rhee (2008) showed that in the first semester MBAs were preoccupied with learning accounting and finance. Their first mid-term exams were almost always traumatic. As a result, the LEAD course was split into two major components of six-week sessions, one at the beginning of the Autumn and one at the beginning of the Spring semester. The new design was launched in Autumn 2008. In this new design, the first component was devoted to helping the MBA develop his/her Personal Vision, including the search for the most meaningful and appropriate job and career for them. In the second half of the course (at the beginning of the Spring semester), the ESCI-U 360 is collected to enable students to know each other well before assessing each

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other. In the second component, competency development is based on their personal vision with students bringing in their printed reports from the 360-degree feedback and signing up for a one-hour coaching session with a specially trained, professional coach. The coaching session focuses on identifying and preserving their strengths while looking at a few of their gaps close to the tipping point to help each student make progress toward their personal vision. This results in a type of audit or personal balance sheet. On the basis of the personal vision and personal balance sheet, they create a learning agenda. This document highlights competencies they would like to develop over the course of their MBA program. To assess the development of competencies and value-added of the MBA program, an Exit Assessment is required in which students take the ESCI-U 360-degree feedback in their last semester prior to graduation. In the Exit Assessment seminar, students evaluate their development of competencies, review their learning agenda, and engage in discussions of their internship or work experiences. They use this to decide what work environment they would most prefer. The Leadership Assessment and Development leads a student through assessments and activities about their dreams and aspirations, current behavior, strengths and gaps as a manager and leader, and culminates in the writing of a learning plan. Students pursue the learning plan through the remainder of the program and afterward. We also assess their competency development in the MBA program through the Exit Assessment seminar conducted toward the end of their final semester.

ASSESSING COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES Even before the humbling Porter and McKibbin (1988) report showed that MBA graduates were not fulfilling the needs of employers or the promise of the schools, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) started a series of outcome assessment studies in 1978. They showed faculty to be effective in producing significant improvement of students with regard to some abilities (Boyatzis and Sokol, 1982; Development Dimensions International-DDI, 1985). Boyatzis and Sokol (1982) showed that students had significantly increased on 40 percent to 50 percent of the competencies assessed in two MBA programs, while DDI (1985) reported that students in the two MBA programs in their sample had significantly increased on 44 percent of the variables assessed. But, they also decreased significantly on 10 percent of the variables in the Boyatzis and Sokol study. When the overall degree of improvement in

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these abilities was calculated (Goleman et al., 2002), these studies showed about a 2 percent increase in emotional and social intelligence competencies in the one to two years students were in the MBA programs. To address program impact, as of the early 1990s, only a few management schools had conducted student-change outcome studies which compared their graduates to their students at the time of entry into the program (Albanese et al., 1990). Today, many schools have conducted other types of outcome studies, namely studies of their alumni or studies with employers and prospective employers. Some schools have examined the student-change from specific courses (Bigelow, 1991; Specht and Sandlin, 1991). Student-change outcome studies have been a focus in undergraduate programs (Astin, 1993; Pascarella and Terenzini, 1991; Mentkowski and Associates, 2000; Winter et al., 1981), but still relatively little has been documented about the effects of graduate programs.

METHODS Since 1990, entering data have been collected during the LEAD course (for a detailed description of the course and the longitudinal study, see Boyatzis, 1994; Boyatzis et al., 2002). The longitudinal study focuses on the impact of the MBA program on the development of cognitive, social and emotional intelligence competencies. The information included in this chapter is an update of earlier published studies. It continues and builds on the earlier studies (Boyatzis et al., 2002; Boyatzis et al., 1996; Boyatzis et al., 1995; Boyatzis and Saatcioglu, 2008) using a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal, time series data collected as part of a 50-year longitudinal study of multiple cohorts of MBA students at the Weatherhead School of Management (WSOM), Case Western Reserve University. Data collected during the years of 1987–89 reflect the results of students’ development prior to revisions in the MBA program and are considered baseline samples. Many of the results of the 1987–96 studies have been reported in conference presentations, books and journal articles. Boyatzis et al. (2002) summarized all of these 12 prior studies and added results for 2000 and 2001. Boyatzis and Saatcioglu (2008) added results from 2004, 2005 and 2006. This chapter adds results from 2008. The result is a set of data from 13 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the full-time MBAs and six of the part-time MBAs. The samples used in the earlier studies, as well as the additional samples first reported here, are described in Table 2.1. For clarification of sampling in each of the earlier years, see Boyatzis et al. (2002).

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Table 2.1

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Description of the samples and populations for the cohorts in this study

Cohort

1987 FTa 1988 FTa 1990–92 FT 1991–93 FT 1992–94 FT 1993–95 FT 1998–2000 FT 1999–2001 FT 2000–2002 FT 2002–2004 FT 2003–2005 FT 2004–2006 FT 2006–2008 FT

No. No. Students % No. MBAs tested graduat- tested female ing entering 100 89 124 105 137 140 186 171 202 162 130 109 63

72 70 108 83 104 125 89 142 – 164 113 136 64

61 71 96c 71c 127c 146 191 169 – 108 104 104 62

27b 17b 71 58 58 77 56d 80d – – – – 36

31 31 37 30 45 35 25 35 32 36 28 38 36

ave. age

26 26 27 27 27 27 29 27 28 27 27 28 26

US FT news ranking

31 44 34 51 63 56 58

39 56 77 64 84 63

Notes: a Assessment was considered voluntary, but not everyone appeared at the orientation program for the full-time students. For the randomly selected samples, participation was voluntary, so all assessed had given their permission. b All randomly selected samples were comparable to the populations from which they were drawn as to age, gender, GMAT, undergraduate GPA and percentage international students. c Some entering students did not graduate due to working toward a joint degree (e.g., MBA/JD) or transferring to the part-time program. Of those that permitted their data to be included in the study, some students were dropped from the final sample due to various unforeseen circumstances (e.g., incomplete assessments). d Samples for those graduating in 1997, 1998 and 1999 were lost due to a series of computer crashes. The 2003 graduating sample was lost due to data entering errors. Consent was not garnered from 2007 sample. In 1997, participation in exit assessment near graduation became a required part of the program for full-time students. Part-time students were not approached for exit assessment.

INSTRUMENTS All of the instruments used in these studies assessed competencies. In the earlier studies, five instruments were used: (1) the Learning Skills Profile (LSP) (Boyatzis and Kolb, 1991); (2) the Critical Incident Interview (CII), which is a one-hour, audiotaped interview (Flanagan, 1954; Boyatzis, 1982; Spencer and Spencer, 1993) coded for the competencies (Boyatzis,

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1998); (3) the Group Discussion Exercise (GDE) is a 45-minute, videotaped simulation, coded for the competencies (Boyatzis, 1998); (4) the Presentation Exercise (PE) is an assessment of an individual’s Oral Communication ability, also coded for the competencies (Boyatzis, 1998); and (5) a 360° informant-based assessment (the SAQ/EAQ and later the ECI-U and ESCI-U). For all of the data coded from qualitative sources, two or three people independently coded the interviews and videotapes. In this research, the coders averaged 89–90 percent inter-rater reliability on 16 of the competencies. The Self-Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) is a 73-item questionnaire in which the participants are asked to assess the frequency with which they demonstrate each behavior. The External Assessment Questionnaire (EAQ) is the informant, or 360, variation of the SAQ. In 2002, five of the cognitive competencies included in these two instruments were dropped because they did not predict effectiveness in management, leadership or professional jobs. They were threshold competencies, predicting average from poor performance (Boyatzis, 2008). In the late 1990s, the SAQ and EAQ were expanded and adapted to assess emotional and social intelligence competencies more directly (Boyatzis and Sala, 2004). The new test was called the ECI. A special version of it, called the ECI-U, WSOM Version was used in the new outcome studies. The ECI-U, WSOM Version assessed several of the cognitive competencies most directly linked to effectiveness in leadership, management, and professional jobs. The ECI-U, and its base test, the ECI, and ECI-2 showed reliability and validity in numerous studies (summarized in Boyatzis and Sala, 2004). The ECI-U, WSOM Version had 71 percent of items that were the same or very close in wording to the original SAQ/EAQ. All of the 17 scales in the SAQ/EAQ were included in the ECI-U. Eight new scales were added. The scales that were the same on the SAQ/EAQ and ECI-U WSOM version were: Achievement Orientation (earlier called Efficiency Orientation, Planning was folded into Achievement Orientation); Adaptability (earlier called Flexibility); Emotional Self-Control (earlier Self-Control); Self-confidence; Empathy; Conscientiousness (earlier called Attention to Detail); Initiative; Conflict Management (earlier called Negotiating); Communication; Developing Others; Influence (earlier called Persuasiveness); Building Bonds (earlier called Networking); Teamwork (earlier called Group Management); Cultural Awareness (earlier called Social Objectivity); Systems Thinking; and Pattern Recognition. The following scales were added in the ECI-U: Emotional Self-Awareness; Accurate Self-Assessment; Trustworthiness; Optimism; Organizational Awareness; Service Orientation; Inspirational Leadership; and Change Catalyst. For

Inspiring the development of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence

75

the latest revision refined to increase reliability and discriminant validity, the ESCI-U (Boyatzis, in press; Wolff, 2007), adjustments to some of the scales were made to maintain the total number of items at 70 while increasing number of items per scale: Accurate Self-Assessment was merged into Emotional Self-awareness; Initiative was merged into Achievement Orientation; Self-Confidence, Conscientiousness, Trustworthiness and Communications were dropped; Optimism was renamed Positive Outlook; Cultural Awareness was merged into Empathy, Building Bonds was merged into Teamwork, and Developing Others was renamed Coach & Mentor. All full-time students were assessed using the ESCI-U in both the first and fourth semesters of the MBA program. In each assessment, they were asked to solicit feedback from at least 12 raters in the categories of supervisor, direct report, client, significant other, siblings, friends and classmates. Each student also completed a self-evaluation using the same instrument. T-tests were conducted on self and other competency ratings to identify significant changes from the beginning to the end of program.

RESULTS Findings reported in Boyatzis et al. (2002) showed that full-time MBAs strongly (multiple measures with multiple cadres), significantly increased on Goal Setting, Action, Initiative, Leadership, Helping, Sense Making, Information Gathering, skills and competencies from entry to graduation as compared to comparison groups of full-time MBAs from the times series classes of 1987 to 1990. They significantly increased on Relationship skills as well. They maintained the significantly value-added, as in the comparison time series cohorts on Self-confidence, Information Analysis, Theory Building, Quantitative Analysis and Use of Technology. Similar and even more dramatic increases in value-added were found in studies of the part-time MBAs as compared to the comparison groups. Boyatzis et al. (2002) showed that full-time MBAs significantly improved statistically on each of the 21 competencies as viewed by others with the EAQ in the 2001 sample and all 16 competencies assessed in the 2004 sample. Using the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, students significantly or near significantly improved on 15 of the 21 competencies in the 2001 sample and improved on all 16 in the 2004 sample. Boyatzis and Saatcioglu (2008) reported on the full-time MBA cohorts of 2003–05 and 2004–06 as assessed using the ECI-U. They showed that full-time MBAs significantly improved on the following competencies in both years, as viewed by others: Accurate Self-Assessment, Initiative, Adaptability, Emotional Self-Control, Achievement Orientation,

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Optimism, Empathy, Cultural Awareness, Communications, Conflict Management, Influence, Building Bonds, Systems Thinking and Pattern Recognition. They did not improve, as viewed by others in either year on: Self-Confidence, Organizational Awareness, Inspirational Leadership, Change Catalyst, Developing Others and Teamwork. They improved in their own eyes from 2003 to 2005 but not in 2004 to 2006 in: Emotional SelfAwareness, Trustworthiness, Conscientiousness and Service Orientation. Building Bonds was the only competency others saw their improvement in 2003–05 but not in 2004–06. In these two cohorts they saw themselves improving in most of the competencies. They did not improve in either cohort in Emotional Self-Awareness and Teamwork. They improved in 2003–05 but not in 2004–06 in: Achievement Orientation and Conscientiousness. They did not improve in 2003–05 but saw themselves improving in 2004–06 in: Optimism, Empathy, Organizational Awareness and Cultural Awareness. Due to staff transition, informed consent was not gathered for the 2005–07 cohort. As indicated by the blank spaces in Table 2.2, the 2006–08 cohort used the newest version of the assessment instrument, the ESCI-U. In both their own opinion and in the view of others, these students significantly improved on the following competencies: Emotional Self-Awareness, Emotional Self-Control, Achievement Orientation, Adaptability, Positive Outlook, Empathy, Inspirational Leadership, Influence, Systems Thinking, and Pattern Recognition. They improved on Conflict Management and Teamwork in the eyes of others, but not in their own opinion. Their self-assessment showed improvement in Organizational Awareness, but this was not the case for others’ reports. Finally, Coach and Mentor was the only competency for which no significant improvement was found in either of the two measures, self and other. As compared to the proceeding cohorts, this data suggests that there was an increase in two Emotional Intelligence competencies: Emotional Self-Awareness, as reported by both self and others, and Achievement Orientation, as reported by others. They also showed significant increases in two Social Intelligence competencies: Inspirational Leadership and Teamwork, both reported by others. Numerous competencies remained the same as present or absent. Two Social Intelligence competencies decreased in the self-assessment: Conflict Management and Coach & Mentor.

77

Emotional SelfAwareness Accurate SelfAssessment b Self-Confidence

Emotional SelfControl Achievement Orientation Initiative

Self-Awareness

Self-Management

Positive Outlook

Adaptability

Conscientiousness

Trustworthiness

Scale

OTHER 2004–06 n = 104 4.0–4.0 t = −1.2 4.1–4.2 t = −2.4** 4.2–4.2 t = −0.9 4.0–4.1 t = −2.8** 4.0–4.0 t = −2.7** 3.6–3.8 t = −6.3*** 4.1–4.1 t = −1.2 4.4–4.4 t = −0.7 4.0–4.1 t = −2.8** 4.2–4.3 t = −1.7*

OTHER 2003–05 n = 104 4.0–4.1a t = −1.9** 4.1–4.2 t = −1.4+ 4.1–4.1 t = −0.8 4.0–4.1 t = −3.6*** 3.9–4.0 t = −3.5*** 3.7–3.9 t = −7.3*** 4.0–4.1 t = −1.4+ 4.3–4.4 t = −1.9* 4.0–4.1 t = −4.5*** 4.2–4.3 t = −1.9* 4.0=4.1 t = −0.8+ 4.1–4.1 t = −0.8+

4.0–4.1 t = −1.1* 4.1–4.2 t = −2.1***

3.9–4.0 t = −1.3**

OTHER 2006–08 n = 36 3.9–4.0 t = −0.6 4.0–4.2 t = −2.6* 3.8–3.9 t = −2.1* 3.7–3.9 t = −2.6* 3.7–3.8 t = −2.0* 3.4–3.7 t = −4.1*** 3.8–3.9 t = −1.4+ 4.0–4.2 t = −2.3* 3.7–3.9 t = −2.4** 4.0–4.0 t = −0.1

SELF 2003–05 n = 92 3.9–4.0 t = −1.1 3.9–4.1 t = −2.4** 3.8–4.0 t = −1.8* 3.7–3.9 t = −3.4*** 3.7–3.8 t = −1.3 3.4–3.5 t = −1.8* 3.7–3.8 t = −1.8* 4.1–4.2 t = −1.0 3.6–3.9 t = −3.04*** 4.0–4.2 t = −1.5+

SELF 2004–06 n = 74

Comparison of full-time entering and graduating MBA students scores on the ECIU and ESCIU

Cluster

Table 2.2

3.8–4.1 t = −1.1* 3.7–3.9 t = −1.0*

3.7–3.9 t = −0.9* 3.8–4.1 t = −1.9***

3.9–4.0 t = −0.8+

SELF 2006–08 n = 29

78

Relationship Mgmt

Empathy

SocialAwareness

Building Bonds

Coach & Mentor

Influence

Conflict Management Change Catalyst

Service Orientation Organizational Awareness Cultural Awareness Inspirational Leadership Communication

Scale

(continued)

Cluster

Table 2.2

4.0–4.1 t = −2.3** 4.2–4.3 t = −1.4+ 4.2–4.2 t = −0.7 4.1–4.1 t = −1.9* 3.9–3.9 t = −0.7 3.9–4.0 t = −2.9** 3.7–3.8 t = −3.9*** 3.8–3.9 t = −1.2 3.8–4.0 t = −4.0*** 3.9–3.9 t = −0.4 4.1–4.2 t = −1.0

OTHER 2003–05 n = 104 4.0–4.0 t = −1.8* 4.2–4.2 t = −0.6 4.2–4.2 t = −1.1 4.1–4.2 t = −2.0** 3.9–3.9 t = −0.7 3.9–4.0 t = −3.0** 3.6–3.7 t = −1.8* 3.8–3.8 t = −0.1 3.9–4.0 t = −2.9** 3.9–3.9 t = −1.0 4.1–4.2 t = −3.4***

OTHER 2004–06 n = 104

3.8–4.0 t = −2.0*** 3.9–3.8 t = 0.3

3.8–3.9 t = −0.9*

3.7–3.9 t = −1.0*

4.2–4.2 t = −0.01

4.0–4.1 t = −0.9*

OTHER 2006–08 n = 36 3.9–4.0 t = −1.3 4.0–4.2 t = −2.4** 3.8–3.9 t = −1.1 3.9–4.0 t = −0.6 3.5–3.7 t = −2.7** 3.5–3.9 t = −4.2*** 3.5–3.7 t = −2.3* 3.5–3.7 t = −2.0* 3.7–3.9 t = −2.4** 3.7–3.9 t = −2.5** 3.8–3.9 t = −1.4+

SELF 2003–05 n = 92 3.9–4.0 t = −1.8* 3.9–4.1 t = −2.0* 3.9–4.0 t = −1.6+ 3.9–4.0 t = −1.4+ 3.6–3.8 t = −2.8** 3.6–3.8 t = −2.4** 3.4–3.6 t = −2.1* 3.5–3.7 t = −2.1* 3.7–3.8 t = −1.5+ 3.7–3.8 t = −1.7* 3.8–4.0 t = −3.3***

SELF 2004–06 n = 74

3.7–3.9 t = −0.7+ 3.5–3.5 t = −0.1

3.7–3.8 t = −0.3

3.4–3.7 t = −0.9*

3.9–4.1 t = −0.7+

3.9–4.0 t = −0.8+

SELF 2006–08 n = 29

79

Pattern Recognition

Systems Thinking

4.3–4.3 t = −0.4 3.8–3.9 t = −2.5** 3.8–4.0 t = −5.4***

4.2–4.3 t = −1.18 3.8–3.9 t = −1.9* 3.9–3.9 t = −2.4**

4.1–4.2 t = −0.8+ 3.8–4.0 t = −2.5*** 3.8–4.0 t = −2.4***

4.0–4.1 t = −1.3 3.5–3.7 t = −3.9*** 3.8–4.0 t = −3.3***

4.1–4.2 t = −1.3 3.4–3.6 t = −2.3* 3.6–3.7 t = −2.2*

4.0–4.0 t = −0.2 3.4–4.0 t = −2.1*** 3.6–3.9 t = −1.2*

Notes: Matched-pair t-tests were run with the ‘t’ reported because a longitudinal design was used. Significance levels are one-tailed: + p < .10; * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p
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